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Both science and policy require a practical, transmissible, and reproducible procedure for surveillance and monitoring of European habitats, which can produce statistics integrated at the landscape level. Over the last 30 years, landscape ecology has developed rapidly, and many studies now require spatial data on habitats. Without rigorous rules, changes(More)
Under benign environmental conditions, plant growth is generally stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. When environmental conditions become sub- or supra-optimal for growth, changes in the biomass enhancement ratio (BER; total plant biomass at elevated CO2 divided by plant biomass at the current CO2 level) may occur. We analysed literature(More)
Young saplings of Pinus sylvestris were fumigated for 3 months with ammonia in concentrations ranging from 0 to 240 μg m-3. Despite the much higher concentrations than normal in the field, no visible damage occurred. Photosynthesis, dark respiration, transpiration and biomass production were stimulated. At 240 μg m-3 with high irradiance (PAR: 950 μmol m-2(More)
Contemporary policy making calls for scientific support to anticipate the possible consequences of optional policy decisions on sustainable development. This paper presents an analytical framework for ex ante assessment of economic, social, and environmental impacts of policy driven land use changes that can be used as an aid to policy making. The tasks(More)
Young saplings of Pinus sylvestris L. were exposed to gaseous NH3 at 53 or 105 μg m−3 for one year in open-top chambers. Saplings received 15N-labelled (NH4)2SO4 via the soil. To examine the importance of foliar N uptake, changes in the concentration of total and labelled N in the needles were followed. Increase in needle biomass and N concentration were(More)
Livestock remains the world’s largest user of land and is strongly related to grassland and feed-crop production. Assessments of environmental impacts of livestock farming require detailed knowledge of the presence of livestock, farming practices, and environmental conditions. The present Europe-wide livestock distribution information is generally(More)
Measures of climate change adaptation often involve modification of land use and land use planning practices. Such changes in land use affect the provision of various ecosystem goods and services. Therefore, it is likely that adaptation measures may result in synergies and trade-offs between a range of ecosystems goods and services. An integrative land use(More)
An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Access to the published version may require subscription. a b s t r a c t In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key action for the advancement of biodiversity objectives, and also to(More)
Four-year-old saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) (L.) were exposed for 11 weeks in controlled-environment chambers to charcoad-filtered air, or to charcoal-filtered air supplemented with NH3 (40 μg m−3), O3 (110 μg m−3 during day/ 40 μg m−3 during night) or NH3+O3. All treatments were carried out at ambient (259 μL L−1) and at elevated CO2(More)
Semi-natural vegetation in agricultural land mainly includes extensively managed grasslands, agro-forestry areas and all vegetated features that are not used for crop production, such as hedgerows, buffer strips, field margins and woodlots. Semi-natural vegetation plays a major role in the supply of ecosystem services such as pollination, pest control,(More)