Marta E. Nottebohm

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Samples of song and blood levels of three gonadal hormones, T, DHT, and E2, were taken at monthly intervals from six adult male canaries over a period of 1 year, as these birds went from 12 to 24 months of age. Song variability and addition of new syllable types were maximal during the summer and early fall, with a peak in September. A secondary peak in new(More)
Young male canaries become sexually mature in late winter, 8-12 months after hatching. During the months between hatching and sexual maturity they develop adult song. The successive stages in the development of adult song are subsong, plastic song, and stable or full song. Once stable song is achieved it lasts for the duration of the breeding season. After(More)
The syrinx of songbirds includes two separate sound sources, the internal tympaniform membranes (ITM), which form the medial wall of each bronchus. The performance of each ITM is controlled by the muscles of that syringeal half. In the canarySerinus canarius, hypoglossal fibers reaching the syrinx via the tracheosyringealis branch of the hypoglossus are(More)
The vocal control system of oscine songbirds has some perplexing properties--e.g. laterality, adult neurogenesis, neuronal replacement--that are not predicted by common views of how vocal learning takes place. Similarly, we do not understand the relation between the direct pathway for the control of learned song and the recursive pathway necessary for song(More)
The song of intact male canaries develops under the almost exclusive control of the left hypoglossus and left syringeal half. Section of the left hypoglossus or of its tracheosyringealis branch induces the right hypoglossus to assume a dominant control over vocal behavior. When this operation is done during the first two weeks after hatching the ensuing(More)
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