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Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for neural crest development in several vertebrates. Genetic experiments in the mouse have shown that Bmp2 is essential for the genesis of migratory neural crest cells. Using several markers and a transgenic reporter approach, we now show that neural crest cells are induced in Bmp2 null mutant embryos,(More)
Piperine, an alkaloid present in the Piper genus, was shown to have an anticonvulsant activity, evaluated by the pilocarpine-induced model, in mice. Pilocarpine (350mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30min after piperine (2.5, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.p.) which significantly increased latencies to 1st convulsion and to death, and percentage of survivals. These(More)
Mouse liver glutathione transferase P1-1 has three cysteine residues at positions 14, 47 and 169. We have constructed the single, double and triple cysteine to alanine mutants to define the behaviour of all three thiols. We confirm that C47 is the 'fast' thiol (pK 7.4), and define C169 as the alkaline reactive residue with a pK(a) of 8.6. Only a small(More)
Neural circuit mapping is generating datasets of tens of thousands of labeled neurons. New computational tools are needed to search and organize these data. We present NBLAST, a sensitive and rapid algorithm, for measuring pairwise neuronal similarity. NBLAST considers both position and local geometry, decomposing neurons into short segments; matched(More)
BACKGROUND Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires(More)
Please note that this preprint is a public draft not a submitted manuscript. It is released in the expectation that it will be useful to our colleagues as is and in order to solicit feedback. All presented results are considered reliable, but it is likely that the final manuscript may contain some additional analysis; for this reason, the byline should not(More)
The distribution of sensory bristles on the thorax of Diptera (true flies) provides a useful model for the study of the evolution of spatial patterns. Large bristles called macrochaetes are arranged into species-specific stereotypical patterns determined via spatially discrete expression of the proneural genes achaete-scute (ac-sc). In Drosophila ac-sc(More)
FlyBase (flybase.org) is the primary online database of genetic, genomic, and functional information about Drosophila species, with a major focus on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The long and rich history of Drosophila research, combined with recent surges in genomic-scale and high-throughput technologies, mean that FlyBase now houses a huge(More)
A massive effort is underway to map the structure of the Drosophila nervous system and to genetically dissect its function. Virtual Fly Brain (VFB; http://www.virtualflybrain.org) is a popular, OWL-based resource providing neuroinformatics support for this work. It provides: curated descriptions of brain regions and neurons; queries for neurons based on(More)
Vertebrates have evolved gills and homologous organ parathy-roid that regulate calcium level in the blood in their different living environments. In higher teleosts, chloride cells in the skin are known to regulate calcium level, yet molecular mechanisms that control development of these cells during the evolution of higher teleosts remain to be(More)