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The ventral furrow and posterior midgut invaginations bring mesodermal and endodermal precursor cells into the interior of the Drosophila embryo during gastrulation. Both invaginations proceed through a similar sequence of rapid cell shape changes, which include apical flattening, constriction of the apical diameter, cell elongation and subsequent(More)
The folded gastrulation (fog) gene is required during Drosophila gastrulation for two morphogenetic movements, formation of the ventral furrow and invagination of the posterior midgut primordium. fog coordinates cell shape changes during these invaginations by inducing apical constriction of cells in spatially and temporally defined manners. fog is(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for neural crest development in several vertebrates. Genetic experiments in the mouse have shown that Bmp2 is essential for the genesis of migratory neural crest cells. Using several markers and a transgenic reporter approach, we now show that neural crest cells are induced in Bmp2 null mutant embryos,(More)
The origins of Ashkenazi Jews remain highly controversial. Like Judaism, mitochondrial DNA is passed along the maternal line. Its variation in the Ashkenazim is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders have been difficult to trace to a source. Here we show that(More)
BACKGROUND Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources) that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP). Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families(More)
BACKGROUND The archaeology of North Africa remains enigmatic, with questions of population continuity versus discontinuity taking centre-stage. Debates have focused on population transitions between the bearers of the Middle Palaeolithic Aterian industry and the later Upper Palaeolithic populations of the Maghreb, as well as between the late Pleistocene and(More)
BACKGROUND Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires(More)
Neural circuit mapping is generating datasets of tens of thousands of labeled neurons. New computational tools are needed to search and organize these data. We present NBLAST, a sensitive and rapid algorithm, for measuring pairwise neuronal similarity. NBLAST considers both position and local geometry, decomposing neurons into short segments; matched(More)
BACKGROUND A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases. The Sahara was a strong geographical barrier against gene flow, at least since 5,000 years ago, when desertification affected a larger region, but the Arab trans-Saharan(More)