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BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence in the brain of intracellular protein inclusions highly enriched in aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-Syn). Although it has been established that progression of the disease is accompanied by sustained activation of microglia, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) on the activation state of macrophages (MΦ) in vitro, and the potential therapeutic effect of these cells in experimental colitis and sepsis. DESIGN Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured with ASCs or with ASC conditioned media (ASC-MΦ) and characterised(More)
OBJECTIVE Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to be one of the endogenous factors involved in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Administration of VIP ameliorates clinical signs in various experimental autoimmune disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the exacerbated inflammatory autoimmune response in rheumatoid(More)
A novel pathway for physiological "cross-talk" between the insulin receptor and the regulatory Gi-protein has been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that a coupling defect between Gi and the insulin receptor is present in the liver of obese patients with and without type II diabetes. Insulin 1 x 10(-9) M (approximately ED50) and 1 x 10(-7) M (Max)(More)
Although necessary to eliminate pathogens, inflammation can lead to serious deleterious effects in the host if left unchecked. During the inflammatory response, further damage may arise from potential autoimmune responses occurring when the immune cells and molecules that respond to pathogen-derived antigens also react to self-antigens. In this sense, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of the antiinflammatory neuropeptide cortistatin in chronic pain evoked by joint inflammation. METHODS Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was evoked in mouse knee joints by intraplantar injection of tumor necrosis factor α and intraarticular infusion of Freund's complete adjuvant, and the analgesic effects of(More)
Cortistatin is a cyclic-neuropeptide produced by brain cortex and immune cells that shows potent anti-inflammatory activity. In this article, we investigated the effect of cortistatin in two models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that mirror chronic and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. A short-term systemic treatment with(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an anti-inflammatory neuropeptide recently identified as a potential antimicrobial peptide. To overcome the metabolic limitations of VIP, we modified the native peptide sequence and generated two stable synthetic analogues (VIP51 and VIP51(6-30)) with better antimicrobial profiles. Herein we investigate the effects of(More)
Activated microglia play a central role in the course of neurodegenerative diseases as they secrete cytotoxic substances which lead to neuronal cell death. Understanding the mechanisms that drive activation of microglia is essential to reverse this phenotype and to protect from neurodegeneration. With some exceptions, evidence indicates that changes in cell(More)
We currently face an alarming resurgence in infectious diseases characterized by antimicrobial resistance and therapeutic failure. This has generated the urgent need of developing new therapeutic approaches that include agents with nontraditional modes of action. A recent interest focused on approaches based on our natural immune defenses, especially on(More)