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BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence in the brain of intracellular protein inclusions highly enriched in aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-Syn). Although it has been established that progression of the disease is accompanied by sustained activation of microglia, the(More)
Although necessary to eliminate pathogens, inflammation can lead to serious deleterious effects in the host if left unchecked. During the inflammatory response, further damage may arise from potential autoimmune responses occurring when the immune cells and molecules that respond to pathogen-derived antigens also react to self-antigens. In this sense, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to be one of the endogenous factors involved in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Administration of VIP ameliorates clinical signs in various experimental autoimmune disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the exacerbated inflammatory autoimmune response in rheumatoid(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) on the activation state of macrophages (MΦ) in vitro, and the potential therapeutic effect of these cells in experimental colitis and sepsis. DESIGN Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured with ASCs or with ASC conditioned media (ASC-MΦ) and characterised(More)
Activated microglia play a central role in the course of neurodegenerative diseases as they secrete cytotoxic substances which lead to neuronal cell death. Understanding the mechanisms that drive activation of microglia is essential to reverse this phenotype and to protect from neurodegeneration. With some exceptions, evidence indicates that changes in cell(More)
A novel pathway for physiological "cross-talk" between the insulin receptor and the regulatory Gi-protein has been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that a coupling defect between Gi and the insulin receptor is present in the liver of obese patients with and without type II diabetes. Insulin 1 x 10(-9) M (approximately ED50) and 1 x 10(-7) M (Max)(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of the antiinflammatory neuropeptide cortistatin in chronic pain evoked by joint inflammation. METHODS Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was evoked in mouse knee joints by intraplantar injection of tumor necrosis factor α and intraarticular infusion of Freund's complete adjuvant, and the analgesic effects of(More)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an anti-inflammatory neuropeptide recently identified as a potential antimicrobial peptide. To overcome the metabolic limitations of VIP, we modified the native peptide sequence and generated two stable synthetic analogues (VIP51 and VIP51(6-30)) with better antimicrobial profiles. Herein we investigate the effects of(More)
Cortistatin is a cyclic-neuropeptide produced by brain cortex and immune cells that shows potent anti-inflammatory activity. In this article, we investigated the effect of cortistatin in two models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that mirror chronic and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. A short-term systemic treatment with(More)
Adrenomedullin is a neuropeptide known for its cardiovascular activities and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of adrenomedullin in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that mirrors chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. A short-term systemic treatment with adrenomedullin reduced clinical severity and(More)