Learn More
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the adult brain, and it exerts its fast hyperpolarizing effect through activation of anion (predominantly Cl-)-permeant GABA(A) receptors. However, during early neuronal development, GABA(A)-receptor-mediated responses are often depolarizing, which may be a key factor in the control of(More)
Members of the nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) families comprising neurotrophins and GDNF-family ligands (GFLs), respectively are crucial for the development and maintenance of distinct sets of central and peripheral neurons. Knockout studies in the mouse have revealed that members of these two families(More)
Glial-lial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been isolated as neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Because of its neurotrophic activity on a wide range of neuronal populations in vitro and in vivo, GDNF is being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for neuronal disorders. During mammalian development, it is expressed(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports the survival of a specific set of neurons in the vertebrate nervous system. Here we show that the rat BDNF gene consists of four short 5' exons and one 3' exon encoding the mature BDNF protein. Eight different BDNF mRNAs with four different 5' ends and two alternative polyadenylation sites are transcribed(More)
The molecular control of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells has remained enigmatic. Transgenic loss-of-function and overexpression models now show that the dosage of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), produced by Sertoli cells, regulates cell fate decisions of undifferentiated spermatogonial cells that include the stem cells for(More)
GABA-mediated fast-hyperpolarizing inhibition depends on extrusion of chloride by the neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter, KCC2. Here we show that sustained interictal-like activity in hippocampal slices downregulates KCC2 mRNA and protein expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which leads to a reduced capacity for neuronal Cl- extrusion. This effect is(More)
Pathophysiological activity and various kinds of traumatic insults are known to have deleterious long-term effects on neuronal Cl- regulation, which can lead to a suppression of fast postsynaptic GABAergic responses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increases neuronal excitability through a conjunction of mechanisms that include regulation of the(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was originally identified as a survival factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. GDNF and related ligands, neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN), maintain several neuronal populations in the central nervous systems, including midbrain dopamine neurons and motoneurons. In addition, GDNF,(More)
The shapes of different organs can be explained largely by two fundamental characteristics of their epithelial rudiments - the pattern of branching and the rate of proliferation. Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has recently been implicated in the development of metanephric ureteric epithelium (Pichel, J. G., Shen, L., Sheng, H. Z.,(More)