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Here, we describe a biomimetic microsystem that reconstitutes the critical functional alveolar-capillary interface of the human lung. This bioinspired microdevice reproduces complex integrated organ-level responses to bacteria and inflammatory cytokines introduced into the alveolar space. In nanotoxicology studies, this lung mimic revealed that cyclic(More)
Macrophage dysfunction is considered an important contributory factor for increased propensity of infections in uremia. Because nitric oxide (NO) is believed to be an effector molecule of macrophage cytotoxicity, we propose that the dysfunction may be related to impaired NO synthesis. To verify this hypothesis, we evaluated macrophage NO synthesis in the(More)
Three transcriptional regulatory regions including a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early region (CMVIE) promoter, the simian virus-40 early region (SV40E) promoter, and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) long terminal repeat (LTR) were ligated to the bovine growth hormone (bGH)-coding gene. Using a bGH transient expression system, the CMVIE and SV40E(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs)--immunomodulatory cells that initiate adaptive immune responses--have recently been shown to exert proangiogenic effects when infiltrating the tumor microenvironment. As tumors that escape immune surveillance inhibit DC maturation, we explored whether maturation status determines their ability to promote angiogenesis and whether(More)
Analysis of how cells sense and respond to mechanical stress has been limited by the availability of techniques that can apply controlled mechanical forces to living cells while simultaneously measuring changes in cell and molecular distortion, as well as alterations of intracellular biochemistry. We have confronted this challenge by developing new(More)
We have isolated overlapping recombinant cosmids that represent 150 kilobases of contiguous DNA sequence from the amplified dihydrofolate reductase domain of a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHOC 400). This sequence includes the 25-kilobase dihydrofolate reductase gene and an origin of DNA synthesis. Eight cosmids that span this(More)
Complex cell behaviours are triggered by chemical ligands that bind to membrane receptors and alter intracellular signal transduction. However, future biosensors, medical devices and other microtechnologies that incorporate living cells as system components will require actuation mechanisms that are much more rapid, robust, non-invasive and easily(More)
The dynamic mechanical behavior of living cells has been proposed to result from timescale-invariant processes governed by the soft glass rheology theory derived from soft matter physics. But this theory is based on experimental measurements over timescales that are shorter than those most relevant for cell growth and function. Here we report results(More)
Neurons have an important role in retinal vascular development. Here we show that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coagulation factor II receptor-like 1 (F2rl1, previously known as Par2) is abundant in retinal ganglion cells and is associated with new blood vessel formation during retinal development and in ischemic retinopathy. After stimulation,(More)
This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by(More)
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