Martín Casapía

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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before exposure is a promising approach for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. METHODS We randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive a combination of two oral antiretroviral drugs, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on uptake, adherence, and sexual practices. We aimed to assess these factors in a cohort of HIV-negative people at risk of infection. METHODS In our cohort study, men and transgender women who have sex with men previously enrolled in PrEP trials (ATN 082, iPrEx, and US Safety Study) were(More)
Drug concentrations associated with protection from HIV-1 acquisition have not been determined. We evaluated drug concentrations among men who have sex with men in a substudy of the iPrEx trial (1). In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, daily oral doses of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate were used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in men(More)
BACKGROUND Across many observational studies, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with two-fold to three-fold increased risk for HIV-1 infection. We investigated whether HSV-2 suppression with aciclovir would reduce the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. METHODS We undertook a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial in(More)
BACKGROUND The Step Study tested whether an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-vectored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine could prevent HIV acquisition and/or reduce viral load set-point after infection. At the first interim analysis, nonefficacy criteria were met. Vaccinations were halted; participants were unblinded. In post hoc analyses, more HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect on birthweight of antenatal mebendazole plus iron vs. placebo plus iron in a highly hookworm-endemic area. METHODS Double-blind, randomized controlled trial set in rural and peri-urban communities in the Peruvian Amazon region. A total of 1042 second trimester pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 44 years were recruited(More)
Malnutrition in school-age children is common in developing countries and includes both stunting and underweight. Stunting, which represents a chronic state of nutritional stress, leads to adverse health, educational and cognitive effects. Although much research is focused on preschool-age children, recent studies show both the high prevalence of stunting(More)
A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November(More)
INTRODUCTION Extensive observational data suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection may facilitate HIV acquisition, increase HIV viral load, and accelerate HIV progression and onward transmission. To explore these relationships, we examined the impact of preexisting HSV-2 infection in an international HIV vaccine trial. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The contribution made by fish ponds (pisciculture) to malaria transmission in the Peruvian Amazon remains to be confirmed. Recent entomological evidence indicates that Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the region, is frequently found in fish ponds along the Iquitos-Nauta road (Loreto, Peru). The aim of this study was to quantify the(More)