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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep consists of a dreaming state in which there is activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG), rapid eye movements, and loss of muscle tone. Although REM sleep was discovered more than 50 years ago, the neuronal circuits responsible for switching between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep remain poorly(More)
We examined the relation between ectopic afferent firing and tactile allodynia in the Chung model of neuropathic pain. Transection of the L5 spinal nerve in rats triggered a sharp, four- to six-fold increase in the spontaneous ectopic discharge recorded in vivo in sensory axons in the ipsilateral L5 dorsal root (DR). The increase, which was not yet apparent(More)
Primary sensory neurons with myelinated axons were examined in vitro in excised whole lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) taken from adult rats up to 9 days after tight ligation and transection of the L(5) spinal nerve (Chung model of neuropathic pain). Properties of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations, and of repetitive spike discharge, were(More)
Primary afferent neurons in mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) are anatomically isolated from one another and are not synaptically interconnected. As such, they are classically thought to function as independent sensory communication elements. However, it has recently been shown that most DRG neurons are transiently depolarized when axons of neighboring(More)
Abnormal afferent discharge originating at ectopic sites in injured primary sensory neurons is thought to be an important generator of paraesthesias, dysaesthesias, and chronic neuropathic pain. We report here that the ability of these neurons to sustain repetitive discharge depends on intrinsic resonant properties of the cell membrane and that the(More)
Intracellular recordings were obtained from primary sensory neurons in excised dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Most (90%) neurons sampled became depolarized during periods of repetitive stimulation of a branch of the dorsal root (DR) which contained only axons of neighboring neurons. DR stimulation also evoked a transient rise in extracellular K+ concentration(More)
In humans, trauma to a peripheral nerve may be followed by chronic pain syndromes which are only relieved by blockade of the effects of sympathetic impulse traffic. It is presumed that, after the lesion, noradrenaline released by activity of sympathetic postganglionic axons excites primary afferent neurons by activating alpha-adrenoceptors, generating(More)
The cell soma of primary sensory neurons is electrically excitable, and is invaded by action potentials as they pass from the peripheral nerve, past the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and toward the spinal cord. However, there are virtually no synapses in the DRG, and no signal processing is known to occur there. Why, then, are DRG cell somata excitable? We(More)
Pentobarbital microinjected into a restricted locus in the upper brainstem induces a general anesthesia-like state characterized by atonia, loss of consciousness, and pain suppression as assessed by loss of nocifensive response to noxious stimuli. This locus is the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA). Although anesthetic agents directly influence(More)