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Raltegravir is the first integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI) approved for use in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the management of HIV infection. Resistance to antiretrovirals can compromise the efficacy of HAART regimens. Therefore it is important to understand the emergence of resistance to RAL and cross-resistance to other INSTIs(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that can cause serious sequelae in immunocompromised patients and in the developing fetus. The coding capacity of the 235 kbp genome is still incompletely understood, and there is a pressing need to characterize genomic contents in clinical isolates. In this study, a procedure for the high-throughput(More)
Selective delivery of antiretrovirals to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cells may reduce toxicities associated with long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may improve therapeutic compliance and delay the emergence of resistance. We developed sterically stabilized pegylated liposomes coated with targeting ligands derived from(More)
Graft rejection in transplant patients is managed clinically by suppressing T-cell function with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In such immunocompromised hosts, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important opportunistic pathogen and can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Currently, the effect of glucocorticosteroids(More)
Human cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic double-stranded DNA virus with one of the largest viral genomes known. The 235 kB genome is divided in a unique long (UL) and a unique short (US) region which are flanked by terminal and internal repeats. The expression of HCMV genes is highly complex and involves the production of protein coding transcripts,(More)
Human cytomegalovirus, a member of the herpesvirus family, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immune compromised patients resulting from either primary lytic infection or reactivation from latency. Latent infection is associated with a restricted viral transcription programme compared to lytic infection which consists of defined protein coding(More)
The use of targeting moieties is a new and exciting field of scientific research for facilitating the specific delivery of therapeutic agents in HIV-infected patients. The interaction of a potential targeting moiety with its ligand is a crucial factor in the evaluation of a targeted approach for chemotherapeutic intervention. Therefore, we have further(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dramatically increases the long-term survival rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. Yet, poor adherence to therapy, adverse effects and the occurrence of resistant viruses can compromise the efficacy of HAART regiments. Therefore, there remains a clear unmet medical need for(More)
Cell-based high-throughput screening campaigns are widely used to identify novel antiviral compounds, for example, against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Typically, these assays enable identification of compounds that potentially target any viral or cellular factor involved in the viral replication cycle. Unraveling the mechanism of action of(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) converts the viral single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. The inhibition of reverse transcription in the viral life cycle has proven its efficacy as a clinically relevant antiviral target, but the appearance of resistance mutations remains a major cause of treatment failure(More)