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Declarative memories of personal experiences are a key factor in defining oneself as an individual, which becomes particularly evident when this capability is impaired. Assessing the physiological mechanisms of human declarative memory is typically restricted to patients with specific lesions and requires invasive brain access or functional imaging. We(More)
When two dissimilar stimuli are presented to the eyes, perception alternates between multiple interpretations, a phenomenon dubbed binocular rivalry. Numerous recent imaging studies have attempted to unveil neural substrates underlying multistable perception. However, these studies had a conceptual constraint: access to observers' perceptual state relied on(More)
When the left and the right eye are simultaneously presented with incompatible images at overlapping retinal locations, an observer typically reports perceiving only one of the two images at a time. This phenomenon is called binocular rivalry. Perception during binocular rivalry is not stable; one of the images is perceptually dominant for a certain(More)
  • B Franke, M Hoogman, +8 authors J K Buitelaar
  • 2008
ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which affects about 5% of school-age children. ADHD persists into adulthood in at least 15% of cases. It is highly heritable and familial influences seem strongest for ADHD persisting into adulthood. However, most of the genetic research in ADHD has been(More)
In rivalry, constant stimuli allow several interpretations ("percepts"). Percepts are characterized by their probability to occur and by the duration of their dominance. During continuous presentation of bi-stable stimuli, both percept probabilities are trivially 50%. To disentangle the processes triggering a percept from those stabilizing it, we introduce(More)
Rivalry is a common tool to probe visual awareness: a constant physical stimulus evokes multiple, distinct perceptual interpretations ("percepts") that alternate over time. Percepts are typically described as mutually exclusive, suggesting that a discrete (all-or-none) process underlies changes in visual awareness. Here we follow two strategies to address(More)
We used binocular rivalry and generalized flash suppression to identify several new shared properties of traveling suppression waves. A strong relationship was found between suppression wave speed and induction pulse strength: increasing the contrast or dot density of the induction pulse led to an increase in wave speed. Evidence of visual field(More)
The link between arousal and pupil dilation is well studied, but it is less known that other cognitive processes can trigger pupil responses. Here we present evidence that pupil responses can be induced by high-level scene processing, independent of changes in low-level features or arousal. In Experiment 1, we recorded changes in pupil diameter of observers(More)
The muscles that control the pupil are richly innervated by the autonomic nervous system. While there are central pathways that drive pupil dilations in relation to arousal, there is no anatomical evidence that cortical centers involved with visual selective attention innervate the pupil. In this study, we show that such connections must exist.(More)
Humans process natural scenes rapidly and accurately. Low-level image features and emotional valence affect such processing but have mostly been studied in isolation. At which processing stage these factors operate and how they interact has remained largely unaddressed. Here, we briefly presented natural images and asked observers to report the presence or(More)