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The presence and function of CB2 receptors in central nervous system (CNS) neurons are controversial. We report the expression of CB2 receptor messenger RNA and protein localization on brainstem neurons. These functional CB2 receptors in the brainstem were activated by a CB2 receptor agonist, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and by elevated endogenous levels of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To evaluate the ability of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) to reduce nausea and vomiting and enhance 5-HT(1A) receptor activation in animal models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the effect of CBDA on (i) lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour (nausea-induced behaviour) or a context (model of anticipatory(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa have diverse pharmacological targets extending beyond cannabinoid receptors and several exert notable anticonvulsant effects. For the first time, we investigated the anticonvulsant profile of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in vitro and in in vivo seizure models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH(More)
Based upon evidence that the therapeutic properties of Cannabis preparations are not solely dependent upon the presence of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), pharmacological studies have been recently carried out with other plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), particularly cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Results from some of(More)
The endogenous cannabinoid system plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function in health and disease. Endocannabinoid levels are regulated by catabolic enzymes. Here, we describe the presence and localization of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the major enzyme responsible for the degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol. We used(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Epilepsy is the most prevalent neurological disease and is characterized by recurrent seizures. Here, we investigate (i) the anticonvulsant profiles of cannabis-derived botanical drug substances (BDSs) rich in cannabidivarin (CBDV) and containing cannabidiol (CBD) in acute in vivo seizure models and (ii) the binding of CBDV BDSs and(More)
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone involved in energy homeostasis and the pathogenesis of obesity, including hypertension. Area postrema (AP) lacks a blood-brain barrier and is a critical homeostatic integration center for humoral and neural signals. Here we investigate the role of AP in adiponectin signaling. We show that rat AP expresses(More)
Anticipatory nausea (AN) is a poorly controlled side effect experienced by chemotherapy patients. Currently, pharmacotherapy is restricted to benzodiazepine anxiolytics, which have limited efficacy, have significant sedative effects and induce dependency. The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), has shown considerable efficacy in(More)
The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inflammation. Using the peripherally restricted cannabinoid (CB)(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist naphthalen-1-yl-(4-pentyloxynaphthalen-1-yl)methanone (SAB378), we investigated the role of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of GI motility and the(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor inverse agonists improve type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia but were discontinued due to adverse psychiatric effects. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a neutral CB1 antagonist producing hypophagia and body weight reduction in lean mice. We investigated its effects in dietary-induced (DIO) and genetically(More)