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The presence and function of CB2 receptors in central nervous system (CNS) neurons are controversial. We report the expression of CB2 receptor messenger RNA and protein localization on brainstem neurons. These functional CB2 receptors in the brainstem were activated by a CB2 receptor agonist, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and by elevated endogenous levels of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cannabinoid 1 (CB1 ) receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, rimonabant (SR141716, SR) and AM251, produce nausea and potentiate toxin-induced nausea by inverse agonism (rather than antagonism) of the CB1 receptor. Here, we evaluated two phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), for their(More)
The emerging potential for the cannabinoid (CB) system in modulating gastrointestinal inflammation has gained momentum over the last few years. Traditional and anecdotal use of marijuana for gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea and abdominal cramps is recognized, but the therapeutic benefit of cannabinoids in the 21st century is overshadowed by the(More)
The endogenous cannabinoid system plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function in health and disease. Endocannabinoid levels are regulated by catabolic enzymes. Here, we describe the presence and localization of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the major enzyme responsible for the degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol. We used(More)
The therapeutic actions of cannabinoids have been known for centuries. In the last 25 years this area of research has grown exponentially with the discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors and endogenous ligands. In the enteric nervous system of gastrointestinal tract, cannabinoid receptors are located on enteric nerve terminals where they exert(More)
Enhanced intestinal transit due to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is reversed by cannabinoid (CB)2 receptor agonists in vivo, but the site and mechanism of action are unknown. We have tested the hypothesis that CB2 receptors are expressed in the enteric nervous system and are activated in pathophysiological conditions. Tissues from either saline- or LPS-treated(More)
Based upon evidence that the therapeutic properties of Cannabis preparations are not solely dependent upon the presence of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), pharmacological studies have been recently carried out with other plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), particularly cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Results from some of(More)
The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of the phospholipid dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) on the intranasal absorption of the polypeptide salmon calcitonin (sCT). DMPG was included as an absorption enhancer for salmon calcitonin in a 0.03 M acetate buffer at pH 4 in a nasal spray formulation. The absorption of sCT was studied as(More)
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone involved in energy homeostasis and the pathogenesis of obesity, including hypertension. Area postrema (AP) lacks a blood-brain barrier and is a critical homeostatic integration center for humoral and neural signals. Here we investigate the role of AP in adiponectin signaling. We show that rat AP expresses(More)
Sickness behaviors are host defense adaptations that arise from integrated autonomic outputs in response to activation of the innate immune system. These behaviors include fever, anorexia, and hyperalgesia intended to promote survival of the host when encountering pathogens. Cannabinoid (CB) receptor activation can induce hypothermia and attenuate(More)