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Mitochondrial disease confirmation and establishment of a specific molecular diagnosis requires extensive clinical and laboratory evaluation. Dual genome origins of mitochondrial disease, multi-organ system manifestations, and an ever increasing spectrum of recognized phenotypes represent the main diagnostic challenges. To overcome these obstacles,(More)
Molecular genetic diagnostic testing for mitochondrial disease has evolved continually since the first genetic basis for a clinical mitochondrial disease syndrome was identified in the late 1980s. Owing to global limitations in both knowledge and technology, few individuals, even among those with strong clinical or biochemical evidence of mitochondrial(More)
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an infantile-onset form of inherited retinal degeneration characterized by severe vision loss(1,2). Two-thirds of LCA cases are caused by mutations in 17 known disease-associated genes(3) (Retinal Information Network (RetNet)). Using exome sequencing we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.25G>A, p.Val9Met) in(More)
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential electron carrier in the respiratory chain whose deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of human mitochondrial disease manifestations. Its multi-step biosynthesis involves production of polyisoprenoid diphosphate in a reaction that requires the enzymes be encoded by PDSS1 and PDSS2. Homozygous mutations in either of(More)
Primary cilia are sensory organelles present on most mammalian cells. The assembly and maintenance of primary cilia are facilitated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional protein trafficking along the cilium. Mutations in genes coding for IFT components have been associated with a group of diseases called ciliopathies. These genetic disorders(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this statement is to review the literature regarding mitochondrial disease and to provide recommendations for optimal diagnosis and treatment. This statement is intended for physicians who are engaged in diagnosing and treating these patients. METHODS The Writing Group members were appointed by the Mitochondrial Medicine Society.(More)
Primary mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) diseases are heterogeneous in etiology and manifestations but collectively impair cellular energy metabolism. Mechanism(s) by which RC dysfunction causes global cellular sequelae are poorly understood. To identify a common cellular response to RC disease, integrated gene, pathway, and systems biology analyses(More)
Next-generation sequencing has led to an unparalleled pace of Mendelian disease gene discovery in recent years. To address the challenges of analysis and sharing of large datasets, we had previously introduced the collaborative web-based GEM.app software [Gonzalez et al., ]. Here, we are presenting the results of using GEM.app over nearly 3 years and(More)
BACKGROUND Whole exome sequencing (WES) offers a powerful diagnostic tool to rapidly and efficiently sequence all coding genes in individuals presenting for consideration of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disorders such as suspected mitochondrial disease. Here, we report results of WES and functional validation in a consanguineous Indian(More)
BACKGROUND Opitz G/BBB syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by variable expression of midline defects including cleft lip and palate, hypertelorism, laryngealtracheoesophageal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and hypospadias. The X-linked form of the condition has been associated with mutations in the MID1 gene on Xp22. The autosomal(More)