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The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes to make the validation process more flexible, while maintaining its high standards. The various aspects of validation are broken down into independent modules, and the information necessary to complete each module is defined. The data required to assess test validity in an(More)
Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory(More)
Animal alternative tests are gaining serious consideration in an array of environmental sciences, particularly as they relate to sound management of chemicals and wastewater discharges. The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the(More)
Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement(More)
Pyrogens as fever-inducing agents can be a major health hazard in parenterally applied drugs. For the control of these contaminants, pyrogen testing for batch release is required by pharmacopoeias. This has been done either by the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test (since 1942) or the limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL), since 1976. New approaches include(More)