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By analysis of a single, variable, and short DNA sequence of 447 bp located within open reading frame 22 (ORF22), we discriminated three major varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypes. VZV isolates from all six inhabited continents that showed nearly complete homology to ORF22 of the European reference strain Dumas were assigned to the European (E) genotype.(More)
In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in North America and spread worldwide to cause the first influenza pandemic since 1968. During the first 4 months, over 500 deaths in the United States had been associated with confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) [2009 H1N1] virus infection. Pathological evaluation of respiratory(More)
Pathological studies on fatal cases caused by 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus (2009 pH1N1) reported extensive diffuse alveolar damage and virus infection predominantly in the lung parenchyma. However, the host immune response after severe 2009 pH1N1 infection is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated viral load, the immune response, and apoptosis in(More)
Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens are infrequent human pathogens; however, the case-fatality rates for the infections are very high, particularly in obstetric C. sordellii infections (>90%). Deaths from Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens toxic shock (CTS) are sudden, and diagnosis is often challenging. Formalin-fixed,(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza B virus infection causes rates of hospitalization and influenza-associated pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A virus infection and accounts for a substantial percentage of all influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths among those aged <18 years; however, the pathogenesis of fatal influenza B virus infection is poorly(More)
The recent discovery of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) as the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has led to the interest in the development of PCR for this virus that is accurate, rapid, and convenient. We developed a sensitive PCR assay for HHV-8 with microtiter plate detection of amplimers. DNA was purified from white blood cells and saliva from(More)
Clostridium difficile toxin is frequently found in the stool of children; however, pseudomembranous colitis is rare. Studying the usefulness of Clostridium difficile toxin assays in pediatrics is required. We performed a correlation between presence of Clostridium difficile toxin in stool and evidence of Clostridium difficile in gastrointestinal pediatric(More)
On December 13, 2013, MMWR published a report describing three cases of sudden cardiac death associated with Lyme carditis. State public health departments and CDC conducted a follow-up investigation to determine 1) whether carditis was disproportionately common among certain demographic groups of patients diagnosed with Lyme disease, 2) the frequency of(More)
The recent influenza pandemic, caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as the seasonal influenza outbreaks caused by varieties of influenza A and B viruses, are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Few studies have evaluated the utility of real-time reverse transcription-PCR to detect influenza virus RNA from formalin-fixed,(More)
We report a fatal case of Brucella suis endocarditis initially misdiagnosed by automated identification systems as Ochrobactrum anthropi infection in a patient with a history of Marfan syndrome and recreational feral swine hunting. This report emphasizes the need to consider brucellosis as a part of the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness,(More)