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In vitro effects of aflatoxin B1 on DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were assessed by measuring tritiated thymidine and radiosulfate incorporation by chicken chondrocyte cultures. Chondrocytes were harvested from the growth-plate cartilage of a 35-day-old chicken, cultured in triplicate, and treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, or 25 micrograms aflatoxin B1/ml of(More)
Large white male turkey poults were fed diets with different levels of vitamins A and D to study the interaction of these vitamins with regard to skeletal development. Poults fed a basal diet deficient in both vitamins A and D developed severe lameness, growth depression, mortality and lesions consistent with rickets. Birds fed a diet containing the(More)
The role of chondroclasts in the pathogenesis of Fusarium roseum-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) was examined in a histomorphometric study. TD developed rapidly in broiler chickens placed at 1 day of age on rations containing either 3% (Experiment 1) or 2% (Experiment 2) F roseum cultures. In Experiment 1 the frequency of TD in birds killed at 4 weeks(More)
A trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary level of selenium on the pathogenesis of Fusarium-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (FITD) in broiler chicks, and to assess the applicability of FITD as an animal model of Kashin-Beck disease of humans. Day-old female broilers were fed diets that were deficient in selenium (0.02 ppm Se), adequate in(More)
Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) is a frequently used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Nephrotoxicity is a serious dose-limiting side effect. Many approaches have been studied for protective action against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, but with the exception of diuretics and hydration none are in widespread use. We have used a modified(More)
Fusarium roseum 'Graminearum' was isolated from overwintered oats in Alaska and was tested for its ability to cause tibial dyschondroplasia (TDP) in broiler chickens. The water-soluble fraction was tested and found to cause TDP. In addition, diacetoxyscirpenol and 7-hydroxydiacetoxyscirpenol were identified in the acetonitrile fraction of the extracts and(More)
We have previously shown that macrophages from chickens infected with avian reovirus are primed to produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to T cell cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We now show that NO exerts potent antireovirus effects. Reovirus replication was substantially reduced in a chicken macrophage cell line, HD11, induced to make NO(More)
A previous study indicated that spleens from reovirus-infected chickens contained macrophages that were primed to produce nitric oxide (NO). The presence of these primed macrophages correlated with depressed in vitro T cell mitogenesis. The current studies indicated that splenic adherent macrophages from virus-exposed chickens inhibited concanavalin A(More)
Female broiler chicks were randomly placed into two groups; one was treated twice daily with TDP-1 (a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium roseum), the other was controls. Chicks were sacrificed after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 days of treatment and were evaluated for tibial dyschondroplasia. TDP-1-treated chicks examined after 2, 4, or 6 days of treatment had either(More)
Two experiments were conducted to examine the relative precision of bone densitometry and bone ash methodologies as response criteria in measurement of bioavailability of phosphorus from various supplements for turkeys. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to analyze data collected. Coefficients of correlation and variation and F ratios were used for(More)