Markus W. Schulz

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We have shown previously that FGF induces lens epithelial cells in explant culture to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into fibre cells in a progressive concentration-dependent manner. In situ, these processes occur in a distinct anterior-posterior pattern in clearly defined regions of the lens. Thus anterior-posterior differences in the(More)
This paper reports on the deployment experience of the de-facto grid information system, Globus MDS (Meta-data Directory Service) [1], in a large scale production grid and how this experience led to the development of an information caching system based on a standard OpenLDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) [2] database. The paper then describes how(More)
Consistent with numerous previous studies, we have found that in adult rats 29% of cells retrogradely prelabelled by injections into retino-recipient nuclei are lost 1 week after intraorbital section of the optic nerve. This figure increases to 76% 2 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injections of 150 ng of 480 kDa chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan purified(More)
Dissociated neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells can be maintained by the addition of an extract from the neonatal superior colliculus. This extract can support 95% of ganglion cells over 24 h in culture; in addition it promotes the expression of neurites from these cells. This report describes the purification of a neurotrophic factor from the superior(More)
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) obtained from the rat retina after the cell death period were maintained in vitro by target derived retinal ganglion cell neurotrophic factor (RGNF). However, only 15% of surviving RGCs expressed neurites. On the other hand, when the culture was supplemented with retinal glia conditioned medium, nearly 80% of surviving RGCs(More)
The present study aimed to characterize the reaction of mammalian (rat) retinal macroglia (Müller cells and astrocytes) to disturbances of their environment in the form of intraorbital section of the optic nerve, intraocular insertion of a thin glass capillary (without damage to the retina) or a combination of both. Glial reactivity was assessed through the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the ocular media for the presence of inhibitors of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) using a lens epithelial explant system in which TGF beta induces cataractous changes. The effect of alpha 2-macroglobulin, an inhibitor of TGF beta in other systems, also was assessed. METHODS Explants prepared from 21-day-old rats were(More)
Recently, Schulz and coworkers purified a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from the superior colliculus of the neonatal rat which promoted survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. The present work tests whether this factor supports the survival of axotomised retinal ganglion cells in vivo. To this effect, murine retinae 15 and 20 days after(More)
Naturally occurring neuronal death is widespread in the central nervous system of mammals. To date, the causes and mechanisms of such death are poorly understood. A major hypothesis is that developing neurons compete for limited amounts of trophic factor(s) released from their target centres as in the case of the peripheral nervous system and nerve growth(More)
The release of nitric oxide and stimulation of glutamate receptors by excitatory amino acids has been linked to neuronal degeneration and toxicity. In the rat retina approximately 60% of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die during the first postnatal week. In this study we examined the effects of nitric oxide synthase blockers and glutamate on the survival of(More)