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Dynamin 1 is a neuron-specific guanosine triphosphatase thought to be critically required for the fission reaction of synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Unexpectedly, mice lacking dynamin 1 were able to form functional synapses, even though their postnatal viability was limited. However, during spontaneous network activity, branched, tubular plasma membrane(More)
The cytoarchitectonic similarities of different neocortical regions have given rise to the idea of 'canonical' connectivity between excitatory neurons of different layers within a column. It is unclear whether similarly general organizational principles also exist for inhibitory neocortical circuits. Here we delineate and compare local(More)
Heterogeneity of release probability p between vesicles in the readily releasable pool (RRP) is expected to strongly influence the kinetics of depression at synapses, but the underlying mechanism(s) are not well understood. To test whether differences in the intrinsic Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion might cause heterogeneity of p, we made presynaptic(More)
The intracellular Ca2+ sensitivity of synaptic vesicle fusion is an important determinant of transmitter release probability, but it is unknown for most CNS synapses. We combined whole-cell membrane capacitance measurements and Ca2+ uncaging at the large calyx of Held nerve terminals to determine the Ca2+ sensitivity of synaptic vesicle fusion at a(More)
Cysteine string protein alpha (CSPalpha)--an abundant synaptic vesicle protein that contains a DNA-J domain characteristic of Hsp40 chaperones--is thought to regulate Ca2+ channels and/or synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We now show that, in young mice, deletion of CSPalpha does not impair survival and causes no significant changes in presynaptic Ca2+ currents(More)
Two-photon imaging of cortical neurons in vivo has provided unique insights into the structure, function, and plasticity of cortical networks, but this method does not currently allow simultaneous imaging of neurons in the superficial and deepest cortical layers. Here, we describe a simple modification that enables simultaneous, long-term imaging of all(More)
The neocortex depends upon a relative balance of recurrent excitation and inhibition for its operation. During spontaneous Up states, cortical pyramidal cells receive proportional barrages of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials. Many of these synaptic potentials arise from the activity of nearby neurons, although the identity of these cells is(More)
6 Summary Summary Two kinetically distinct components of transmitter release have been observed in Ca 2+ uncaging experiments at a CNS synapse in rats, and both release components showed a steep dependence of release kinetics on [Ca 2+ ] i. These findings were based on simultaneous pre-and postsynaptic whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from the calyx of(More)
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