Markus Schläpfer

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A framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures has been proposed by some of the authors. The framework basically consists of two successive stages: (i) a screening analysis for identifying the parts of the critical infrastructure most relevant with respect to its vulnerability and (ii) a detailed modeling of the operational(More)
The size of cities is known to play a fundamental role in social and economic life. Yet, its relation to the structure of the underlying network of human interactions has not been investigated empirically in detail. In this paper, we map society-wide communication networks to the urban areas of two European countries. We show that both the total number of(More)
The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly complex interactions of technical components and relevant actors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an(More)
While degree correlations are known to play a crucial role for spreading phenomena in networks, their impact on the propagation speed has hardly been understood. Here we investigate a tunable spreading model on scale-free networks and show that the propagation becomes slow in positively (negatively) correlated networks if nodes with a high connectivity(More)
Increasing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources induce higher and higher power flow variability at the transmission level. The question arises as to what extent existing networks can absorb additional fluctuating power injection without exceeding thermal limits. At the same time, the resulting power flow characteristics call for revisiting(More)
Identifying changes in the spatial structure of cities is a prerequisite for the development and validation of adequate planning strategies. Nevertheless, current methods of measurement are becoming ever more challenged by the highly diverse and intertwined ways of how people actually make use of urban space. Here, we propose a new quantitative measure for(More)
The Pearson correlation coefficient is commonly used for quantifying the global level of degree-degree association in complex networks. Here, we use a probabilistic representation of the underlying network structure for assessing the applicability of different association measures to heavy-tailed degree distributions. Theoretical arguments together with our(More)
Detailed knowledge of the energy needs at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution is crucial for the electricity infrastructure planning of a region. However, such information is typically limited by the scarcity of data on human activities, in particular in developing countries where electrification of rural areas is sought. The analysis of(More)
The shape of buildings plays a critical role in the energy e ciency, lifestyles, land use and infrastructure systems of cities. Thus, as most of the world’s cities continue to grow and develop, understanding the interplay between the characteristics of urban environments and the built form of cities is essential to achieve local and global sustainability(More)