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We studied the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency of different donor-acceptor labeled model DNA systems in aqueous solution from ensemble measurements and at the single molecule level. The donor dyes: tetramethylrhodamine (TMR); rhodamine 6G (R6G); and a carbocyanine dye (Cy3) were covalently attached to the 5'-end of a 40-mer model(More)
The precise molecular architecture of synaptic active zones (AZs) gives rise to different structural and functional AZ states that fundamentally shape chemical neurotransmission. However, elucidating the nanoscopic protein arrangement at AZs is impeded by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional light microscopy. Here we introduce new approaches(More)
The p53 family comprises the tumor suppressor p53 and the structural homologs p63 and p73. How the three family members cooperate in tumor suppression remains unclear. Here, we report different but complementary functions of the individual members for regulating retinoblastoma protein (RB) function during myogenic differentiation. Whereas p53 transactivates(More)
Most intracellular bacterial pathogens reside within membrane-surrounded host-derived vacuoles. Few of these bacteria exploit membranes from the host's endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form a replicative vacuole. Here, we describe the formation of ER-vacuole contact sites as part of the replicative niche of the chlamydial organism Simkania negevensis.(More)
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis in biological systems has reached broad application along with the fast improvement of fluorescent proteins. This work shows the advancement of the commonly used single-step FRET between two fluorophores to a two-step FRET analysis with three fluorophores in vivo. In addition to CFP and YFP the DsRed(More)
The active zone (AZ) protein Bruchpilot (Brp) is essential for rapid glutamate release at Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Quantal time course and measurements of action potential-waveform suggest that presynaptic fusion mechanisms are altered in brp null mutants (brp(69) ). This could account for their increased evoked excitatory(More)
Many functions of T lymphocytes are closely related to cell volume homeostasis and regulation, which utilize a complex network of membrane channels for anions and cations. Among the various potassium channels, the voltage-gated K(V)1.3 is well known to contribute greatly to the osmoregulation and particularly to the potassium release during the regulatory(More)