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INTRODUCTION Metformin associated lactic acidosis (MALA) may complicate metformin therapy, particularly if metformin accumulates due to renal dysfunction. Profound lactic acidosis (LA) generally predicts poor outcome. We aimed to determine if MALA differs in outcome from LA of other origin (LAOO). METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of all(More)
Rhino- and/or otoliquorrhea can be diagnosed by detecting beta-trace protein (β-TP) in nasal or ear secretions, as β-TP is found in high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum. CSF fistulae following trauma or surgery can also occur at other anatomical sites, resulting in CSF leakage into the thoracic and abdominal cavities. By(More)
Neutrophils in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples are commonly considered a pathological feature; however, there is little information on the frequency and significance of these cells in CSF samples without pleocytosis. Therefore, the frequency and possible clinical significance of neutrophils in CSF was investigated. In a retrospective study comprising 1556(More)
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