Markus Ralser

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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a fundamental technique in molecular biology. Nonetheless, further improvements of the existing protocols are required to broaden the applicability of PCR for routine diagnostic purposes, to enhance the specificity and the yield of PCRs as well as to reduce the costs for high-throughput applications. One known(More)
Tight control of translation is fundamental for eukaryotic cells, and deregulation of proteins implicated contributes to numerous human diseases. The neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 is caused by a trinucleotide expansion in the SCA2 gene encoding a lengthened polyglutamine stretch in the gene product ataxin-2, which seems to be(More)
The Warburg effect describes the circumstance that tumor cells preferentially use glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. It has been reported that this metabolic reconfiguration originates from a switch in the expression of alternative splice forms (PKM1 and PKM2) of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK), which is also(More)
In proliferating cells, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is known as the Warburg effect, whose reversal inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Studying its regulator pyruvate kinase (PYK) in yeast, we discovered that central metabolism is self-adapting to synchronize redox metabolism when respiration is activated. Low PYK activity activated(More)
Measuring intracellular metabolism has increasingly led to important insights in biomedical research. (13)C tracer analysis, although less information-rich than quantitative (13)C flux analysis that requires computational data integration, has been established as a time-efficient method to unravel relative pathway activities, qualitative changes in pathway(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic cells have evolved various response mechanisms to counteract the deleterious consequences of oxidative stress. Among these processes, metabolic alterations seem to play an important role. RESULTS We recently discovered that yeast cells with reduced activity of the key glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase exhibit an increased(More)
Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by various mutations in the gene encoding the key glycolytic enzyme TPI. A drastic decrease in TPI activity and an increased level of its substrate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, have been measured in unpurified cell extracts of affected individuals. These observations(More)
The inhibition of triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) in glycolysis by the pyruvate kinase (PK) substrate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) results in a newly discovered feedback loop that counters oxidative stress in cancer and actively respiring cells. The mechanism underlying this inhibition is illuminated by the co-crystal structure of TPI with bound PEP at 1.6 Å(More)
AIMS A shift in primary carbon metabolism is the fastest response to oxidative stress. Induced within seconds, it precedes transcriptional regulation, and produces reducing equivalents in form of NADPH within the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). RESULTS Here, we provide evidence for a regulatory signaling function of this metabolic transition in yeast.(More)
The methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic DNA modification in many bacteria, plants, and mammals, but its relevance for important model organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, is still equivocal. By reporting the presence of 5-meC in a broad variety of wild, laboratory, and industrial(More)