Markus R. Owen

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Although metformin is widely used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, its mode of action remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that its primary site of action is through a direct inhibition of complex 1 of the respiratory chain. Metformin(50 microM) inhibited mitochondrial oxidation of glutamate+malate in hepatoma cells by 13 and 30%(More)
Observations on Mount St Helens indicate that the spread of recolonizing lupin plants has been slowed due to the presence of insect herbivores and it is possible that the spread of lupins could be reversed in the future by intense insect herbivory [Fagan, W. F. and J. Bishop (2000). Trophic interactions during primary sucession: herbivores slow a plant(More)
Poor drug delivery and low rates of cell proliferation are two factors associated with hypoxia that diminish the efficacy of many chemotherapeutic drugs. Since macrophages are known to migrate specifically towards, and localize within, hypoxic tumour regions, a promising resolution to these problems involves genetically engineering macrophages to perform(More)
The hippocampus, and particularly the CA3 and CA1 areas, exhibit a variety of oscillatory rhythms that span frequencies from the slow theta range (4-10 Hz) up to fast ripples (200 Hz). Various computational models of different complexities have been developed in an effort to simulate such population oscillations. Nevertheless the mechanism that underlies(More)
Many signaling molecules in epithelia are now known to function in a membrane-bound form, binding to receptors on immediately neighbouring cells. This "juxtacrine" mode of communication has been well studied in the case of lateral inhibition, where ligand binding at the cell surface downregulates ligand and receptor expression, and is known to generate(More)
In this paper we show how to construct the Evans function for traveling wave solutions of integral neural field equations when the firing rate function is a Heaviside. This allows a discussion of wave stability and bifurcation as a function of system parameters, including the speed and strength of synaptic coupling and the speed of axonal signals. The(More)
Solid tumours do not develop as a homogeneous mass of mutant cells, rather, they grow in tandem with normal tissue cells initially present, and may also recruit other cell types including lymphatic and endothelial cells. Many solid tumours contain a high proportion of macrophages, a type of white blood cell which can have a variety of effects upon the(More)
Juxtacrine signalling is emerging as an important means of cellular communication, in which signalling molecules anchored in the cell membrane bind to and activate receptors on the surface of immediately neighbouring cells. We develop a mathematical model to describe this process, consisting of a coupled system of ordinary differential equations, with one(More)
We extend previous models for nearest neighbour ligand-receptor binding to include both lateral induction and inhibition of ligand and receptor production, and different geometries (strings of cells and hexagonal arrays, in addition to square arrays). We demonstrate the possibility of lateral inhibition giving patterns with a characteristic length scale of(More)
Gravity profoundly influences plant growth and development. Plants respond to changes in orientation by using gravitropic responses to modify their growth. Cholodny and Went hypothesized over 80 years ago that plants bend in response to a gravity stimulus by generating a lateral gradient of a growth regulator at an organ's apex, later found to be auxin.(More)