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Suicide gene therapy using the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) has shown promising results for the treatment of colon carcinoma cells in vitro. Efficient viral infection and tumor-specific gene delivery is crucial for clinically measurable treatment effects. After proving efficient gene transfer in vitro, we demonstrate here that(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the tolerability and antitumor activity of AMG 386, a peptibody (a peptide Fc fusion) that neutralizes the interaction of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 with Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2), plus sorafenib in patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in a(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a pluripotent cytokine that promotes angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis in experimental models; its presence in some human cancers is associated with aggressive tumor biology. The purpose of these studies was to characterize the role of IL-1 in human cancers and determine if inhibition of IL-1 via its receptor(More)
Replicating viruses for cancer gene therapy have beneficial antitumor effects, however, in the setting of an enzyme/prodrug system, the interactions between these viruses and the activated agents are complex. A replicating vaccinia virus expressing the cytosine deaminase gene (VVCD), which converts the prodrug 5-FC into 5-FU, was characterized in vitro and(More)
Tumor-directed gene therapy, such as "suicide gene" therapy, requires high levels of gene expression in a high percentage of tumor cells in vivo to be effective. Current vector strategies have been ineffective in achieving these goals. This report introduces the attenuated (thymidine kinase (TK)-negative) replication-competent vaccinia virus (VV) as a(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has marked effects on permeability and procoagulant activity on tumor-associated neovasculature when used in isolation perfusion, the latter effect primarily mediated via induction of cell surface expression of tissue factor (TF) on endothelial tissue. However, the cellular events that result in rapid alterations in endothelial(More)
There are no satisfactory treatment options for patients with ocular melanoma metastatic to liver, and after liver metastases are identified, median survival is only between 2 and 7 months. Because liver metastases are the sole or life-limiting component of disease in the vast majority of patients who recur, we reasoned that complete vascular isolation and(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has direct pluripotent effects on cells with immune and inflammatory function. Which of these effects has a critical role in mediating tumor regression remains enigmatic. In this study, we compared early changes in transcriptional profiles of circulating mononuclear cells with those occurring within the microenvironment of(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) causes regression of advanced cancers when used in isolation perfusion with melphalan; evidence suggests these effects are mediated via selective yet uncharacterized actions on tumor neovasculature. A novel derivative, colloidal gold bound TNF (cAu-TNF) has been shown to have similar antitumor effects as native TNF with less(More)
IL-1beta is a pleotropic cytokine that may mediate increased procoagulant activity and permeability in endothelial tissue during inflammatory conditions. The procoagulant effects of IL-1beta are mediated through induction of tissue factor (TF) but its alterations on vascular permeability are not well characterized. We found that IL-1beta induced a rapid and(More)