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Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are crucial in the innate host defense by their ability to rapidly accumulate in inflamed tissues and clear a site of infection from microbial pathogens by their potent effector mechanisms. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a recently described activating receptor on PMN with an important role(More)
Activation of dendritic cells by ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR) is a crucial event in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Several classes of TLR ligands have been identified that interact with distinct members of the TLR-family. TLR4 ligands include lipopolysaccharide derived from different Gram-negative bacteria and viral(More)
Polymophonuclear cells (PMN) of healthy donors do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens or the T-cell costimulatory molecules CD80 or CD86. Expression of these receptors, however, is seen in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. We now report that, by culturing PMN of healthy donors with autologous serum,(More)
In humans and mice naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) are crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling not only potentially autoreactive T cells but virtually all cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Here we show that co-culture of murine dendritic cells (DC) and nTregs results in an immediate increase of cAMP(More)
To investigate the influence of avidity on T cell activation in vitro and in vivo, we analyzed T cells from St40 and St42 mice, which express the same transgenic TCR specific for an E1a-derived epitope of adenovirus type 5 with different expression levels and therefore different avidities. Splenocytes from both strains showed comparable cytolytic activities(More)
BACKGROUND Constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens and of the co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD86 is restricted to professional antigen presenting cells. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) of healthy donors are negative for those antigens. Our recent study, however, found that PMN of patients with active(More)
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of mortality in haematological patients. Appropriate activation of the innate immune system is crucial for the successful clearance of IA. Therefore, we studied the Aspergillus fumigatus-mediated activation of human granulocytes and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as murine bone(More)
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) plays an important role in the innate immune response related to severe infections and sepsis. Modulation of TREM-1-associated activation improves the outcome in rodent models for pneumonia and sepsis. However, the identity and occurrence of the natural TREM-1 ligands are so far unknown,(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are able to interact with pathogen-derived products and their signals induce the coordinated activation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in these events. As the different TLRs are able to trigger MyD88/TRIF-dependent and -independent signaling pathways, we wondered if the(More)
The anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent thrombosis and occurrence of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). aPL are necessary, but not sufficient for the clinical manifestations of APS. Growing evidence suggests a role of innate immune cells, in particular polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and Toll-like receptors (TLR) to be(More)