Markus Munder

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T cells that can respond to self-antigens are present in the peripheral immune repertoire of all healthy individuals. Recently we have found that unmanipulated SJL mice that are highly susceptible to EAE also maintain a very high frequency of T cells responding to an encephalitogenic epitope of a myelin antigen proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151 in the(More)
Interferon (IFN)-gamma, a key immunoregulatory cytokine, has been thought to be produced solely by activated T cells and natural killer cells. In this study, we show that murine bone marrow- derived macrophages (BMMPhi) secrete large amounts of IFN-gamma upon appropriate stimulation. Although interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 alone induce low levels of(More)
The enzyme arginase metabolizes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Besides its fundamental role in the hepatic urea cycle, arginase is also expressed the immune system of mice and man. While significant interspecies differences exist regarding expression, subcellular localization and regulation of immune cell arginase, associated pathways of(More)
The balance of arginine metabolism via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or arginase is an important determinant of the inflammatory response of murine macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we analyzed the expression of the isoform arginase I in human myeloid cells. Using healthy donors and patients with arginase I deficiency, we found that in human leukocytes(More)
Chronic inflammation is accompanied by impaired T-cell immunity. In the mouse, myeloid cell-associated arginase accounts for the suppression of immune reactivity in various models of tumor growth and chronic infections. Here we show that arginase I is liberated from human granulocytes, and very high activities accumulate extracellularly during purulent(More)
The arginine-hydrolyzing enzyme arginase is constitutively expressed by human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). Upon PMN cell death arginase is liberated and depletes arginine in the microenvironment. This amino acid depletion suppresses T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion and emerges as a key mechanism of immunosuppression during chronic(More)
We have recently identified a novel population of activated low-density granulocytes (LDGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV seropositive patients. LDGs have a similar morphology to normal density granulocytes (NDGs), but are phenotypically different. Here we measured the expression levels of different phenotypic markers of granulocytes in the(More)
Macrophages play a major role in the immune system, both as antimicrobial effector cells and as immunoregulatory cells, which induce, suppress or modulate adaptive immune responses. These key aspects of macrophage biology are fundamentally driven by the phenotype of macrophage arginine metabolism that is prevalent in an evolving or ongoing immune response.(More)
Complex regulation of T cell functions during pregnancy is required to ensure materno-fetal tolerance. Here we reveal a novel pathway for the temporary suppression of maternal T cell responses in uncomplicated human pregnancies. Our results show that arginase activity is significantly increased in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and remarkably high(More)
BACKGROUND Daratumumab, a human IgGκ monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, induces direct and indirect antimyeloma activity and has shown substantial efficacy as monotherapy in heavily pretreated patients with multiple myeloma, as well as in combination with bortezomib in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. METHODS In this phase 3 trial, we(More)