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Obesity is characterized by an imbalance in the brain circuits promoting reward seeking and those governing cognitive control. Here we show that the dorsal caudate nucleus and its connections with amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex contribute to abnormal reward processing in obesity. We measured regional brain glucose uptake in morbidly obese (n = 19)(More)
Although many effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on the circulation are well characterized, the distribution and regulation of blood flow (BF) heterogeneity in skeletal muscle during systemic hypoxia is not well understood in humans. We measured muscle BF within the thigh muscles of nine healthy young men using positron emission tomography during(More)
The preparation of hippocampal slices results in loss of input neurons to dentate granule cells, which leads to the reorganization of their axons, the mossy fibers, and alters their functional properties in long-term cultures, but its temporal aspects in the immature hippocampus are not known. In this study, we have focused on the early phase of this(More)
The m.3243A>G mutation is the most common pathogenic mutation in mitochondrial DNA. It leads to defective oxidative phosphorylation, decreased oxygen consumption and increased glucose utilization and lactate production in vitro. However, oxygen and glucose metabolism has not been studied in the brain of patients harbouring the m.3243A>G mutation. Therefore,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The m.3243A>G mutation is the most common pathogenic mutation in mtDNA; tissues with high dependence on aerobic energy metabolism, such as the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, are most affected by the ensuing mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that the m.3243A>G mutation manifests as disturbances in white matter(More)
OBJECTIVE To study insulin sensitivity and perfusion in skeletal muscle together with the beta-cell function in subjects with the m.3243A>G mutation in mitochondrial DNA, the most common cause of mitochondrial diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured skeletal muscle glucose uptake and perfusion using positron emission tomography and(More)
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