Markus Ladwein

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Dynamic actin rearrangements are initiated and maintained by actin filament nucleators, including the Arp2/3-complex. This protein assembly is activated in vitro by distinct nucleation-promoting factors such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein/Scar family proteins or cortactin, but the relative in vivo functions of each of them remain controversial. Here,(More)
Actin pedestal formation by pathogenic E. coli requires signaling by the bacterial intimin receptor Tir, which induces host cell actin polymerization mediated by N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex. Whereas canonical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) recruit these actin regulators through tyrosine kinase signaling cascades, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7(More)
RhoA is a small guanosine-5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) suggested to be essential for cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and epithelial cell-cell contacts. In skin, loss of RhoA was suggested to underlie pemphigus skin blistering. To analyze RhoA function in vivo, we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the RhoA gene. Despite a severe(More)
Cell migration entails the formation of cellular protrusions such as lamellipodia or filopodia, the growth of which is powered by the polymerisation of actin filaments abutting the plasma membrane. Specific Rho-GTPase subfamilies are able to drive different types of protrusions. However, significant crosstalk between Rho-family members and the interplay of(More)
Type III secretion system-mediated injection of a cocktail of bacterial proteins drives actin rearrangements, frequently adopting the shape of prominent protuberances of ruffling membrane, and culminating in host cell invasion of Gram-negative pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium. Different Salmonella effectors are able to bind actin and activate(More)
The Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate a variety of cellular functions by signaling to different signal pathways. It is believed that the presence of a specific effector at the location of GTPase activation determines the route of downstream signaling. We previously reported about EGF-induced Ser-71 phosphorylation of Rac1/Cdc42. By using the(More)
Clostridium difficile Toxin B (TcdB) glucosylates low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins of the Rho subfamily and thereby causes actin re-organization (cell rounding). This "cytopathic effect" has been generally attributed to RhoA inactivation. Here we show that cells expressing non-glucosylatable Rac1-Q61L are protected from the cytopathic effect of(More)
RhoB is the only member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, which is classified as an immediate early gene product. RhoB is up-regulated in response to growth factors as well as cytotoxic and genotoxic agents. Clostridial glucosylating toxins have been reported to evoke pronounced RhoB expression, based on the inactivation of Rho/Ras proteins. In this(More)
A common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. This is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as Rho-GTPases. A novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the WXXXE family has emerged as guanine(More)
Cell migration is commonly accompanied by protrusion of membrane ruffles and lamellipodia. In two-dimensional migration, protrusion of these thin sheets of cytoplasm is considered relevant to both exploration of new space and initiation of nascent adhesion to the substratum. Lamellipodium formation can be potently stimulated by Rho GTPases of the Rac(More)
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