Markus Kunze

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OBJECTIVES To collect available international data on nicotine dependence as defined by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, and to compare levels of dependence among countries and categories of smokers. DATA SOURCES Published and unpublished studies known to the authors and a search of EMBASE from 1985-1995. STUDY SELECTION Studies included were(More)
The glyoxylate cycle provides the means to convert C2-units to C4-precursors for biosynthesis, allowing growth on fatty acids and C2-compounds. The conventional view that the glyoxylate cycle is contained within peroxisomes in fungi and plants is no longer valid. Glyoxylate cycle enzymes are located both inside and outside the peroxisome. Thus, the(More)
The eukaryotic glyoxylate cycle has been previously hypothesized to occur in the peroxisomal compartment, which in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae additionally represents the sole site for fatty acid beta-oxidation. The subcellular location of the key glyoxylate-cycle enzyme malate synthase 1 (Mls1p), an SKL-terminated protein, was examined in yeast(More)
RATIONALE This statement is an updated version of one released by the same authors in February 2003. The statement was produced to follow up the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Tobacco Advisory Group report "Protecting smokers, saving lives: the case for a tobacco and nicotine regulatory authority", which argued for an evidence based regulatory approach(More)
The peroxisome represents a ubiquitous single membrane-bound key organelle that executes various metabolic pathways such as fatty acid degradation by alpha- and beta-oxidation, ether-phospholipid biosynthesis, metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and detoxification of glyoxylate in mammals. To fulfil this vast array of metabolic functions, peroxisomes(More)
Of the 300,000 deaths attributable to smoking among women in developed countries in 1985, 21% were coded to lung cancer, for example, 41% to cardiovascular diseases, primarily coronary heart disease and stroke, and 18% to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Overall, female deaths rates from lung cancer in developed countries increased by almost 200%(More)
Tobacco use is a global health care problem. Repetitive exposure to nicotine produces neuroadaptation resulting in nicotine dependence. Cigarette smoking is particularly addictive due to the repeated delivery of bolus doses of nicotine to the bloodstream. Although compulsive tobacco use is sustained by nicotine addiction, it is the toxic combustion products(More)
Pseudomonas putida GJ31 has been reported to grow on chlorobenzene using a meta-cleavage pathway with chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase (CbzE) as a key enzyme. The CbzE-encoding gene was found to be localized on the 180 kb plasmid pKW1 in a cbzTEXGS cluster, which is flanked by transposases and encodes only a partial (chloro)catechol meta-cleavage pathway(More)
Defects of adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) lead to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a disorder mainly affecting the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. In the present study, we examine the expression of ALDP in various human tissues and cell lines by multiple-tissue RNA expression array analysis, Western blot analysis, and(More)