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Cellular biochemical networks have to function in a noisy environment using imperfect components. In particular, networks involved in gene regulation or signal transduction allow only for small output tolerances, and the underlying network structures can be expected to have undergone evolution for inherent robustness against perturbations. Here we combine(More)
The distribution of guanine and cytosine nucleotides throughout a genome, or the GC content, is associated with numerous features in mammals; understanding the pattern and evolutionary history of GC content is crucial to our efforts to annotate the genome. The local GC content is decaying toward an equilibrium point, but the causes and rates of this decay,(More)
Systems biology is an approach to the analysis and prediction of the dynamic behaviour of biological networks through mathematical modelling based on experimental data. The current lack of reliable quantitative data, especially in the field of signal transduction, means that new methodologies in data acquisition and processing are needed. Here, we present(More)
Cyanobacteria are the simplest known cellular systems that regulate their biological activities in daily cycles. For the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, it has been shown by in vitro and in vivo experiments that the basic circadian timing process is based on rhythmic phosphorylation of KaiC hexamers. Despite the excellent experimental work, a full(More)
A general dynamic description of protein synthesis was employed to quantify different sources of gene expression noise in cellular systems. To test our approach, we use time-resolved expression data of individual human cells and, from this information, predict the stationary cell-to-cell variation in protein levels in a clonal population. For three of the(More)
Biological systems are exposed to various perturbations that affect performance of the cellular networks, with stochastic variation in protein levels, or gene expression noise, being one of the major sources of intracellular perturbations. We recently used Escherichia coli chemotaxis as a model to analyze robustness against such noise and demonstrated(More)
Cellular signaling networks have evolved an astonishing ability to function reliably and with high fidelity in uncertain environments. A crucial prerequisite for the high precision exhibited by many signaling circuits is their ability to keep the concentrations of active signaling compounds within tightly defined bounds, despite strong stochastic(More)
The circadian rhythm of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is controlled by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. In a test tube, these proteins form complexes of various stoichiometry and the average phosphorylation level of KaiC exhibits robust circadian oscillations in the presence of ATP. Using mathematical modeling, we were able to reproduce(More)
High-quality quantitative data generated under standardized conditions is critical for understanding dynamic cellular processes. We report strategies for error reduction, and algorithms for automated data processing and for establishing the widely used techniques of immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting as highly precise methods for the quantification of(More)
Chemotaxis allows bacteria to colonize their environment more efficiently and to find optimal growth conditions, and is consequently under strong evolutionary selection. Theoretical and experimental analyses of bacterial chemotaxis suggested that the pathway has been evolutionarily optimized to produce robust output under conditions of such physiological(More)