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The human enteric nervous system (ENS) derives from migrating neural crest cells (NCC) and is structured into different plexuses embedded in the gastrointestinal tract wall. During development of the NCC, a rearrangement of various cytoskeletal intermediate filaments such as nestin, peripherin, or alpha-internexin takes place. Although all are related to(More)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) orchestrates a broad range of important gastrointestinal functions such as intestinal motility and gastric secretion. The ENS can be affected by environmental factors, diet and disease. Changes due to these alterations are often hard to evaluate in detail when whole gut samples are used. Analyses based on pure ENS tissue can(More)
The enteric nervous system with its intricate network of neurons and glia shows a high plasticity, which not only changes during pre- and postnatal development, but also with disease or changing dietary habits. FGF as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system might also play a specific role for the ENS development, FGF-2 knockout and(More)
Ultrasound is widely used in clinical practice, mostly in diagnostic studies, but increasingly in therapeutic applications as well. This may be the case in acceleration of wound healing or treatment of cancer. Still, little is known about the direct effect of frequency or energy density of the ultrasound upon the cells themselves. We therefore investigated(More)
The treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (e.g., tumor therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, plasmapheresis) rarely leads to an improvement in the neurological symptoms. We treated four patients suffering from paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with intravenous immunoglobulins. All four had high titers of antineuronal antibodies in serum and(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), fatal neuronal cell loss occurs long before relevant evidence can lead to a reliable diagnosis. If characteristic pathological alterations take place in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it could be one of the most promising targets for an early diagnosis, using submucosal biopsies from the gut. We therefore investigated time-(More)
BACKGROUND Pancreatic neuropathy in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PCa) is characterized by pancreatic neuropathy, i.e. increased neural density and hypertrophy, which are associated with neuropathic pain. To better understand the mechanism of these neuropathic alterations, we aimed at achieving an in-vitro simulation of the(More)
Breast-feeding plays an important role for the development of the newborn. Non-breast fed premature born infants show a significantly higher risk of developing diseases like infantile diarrhoea and necrotizing enterocolitis. In this study, the content of neurotrophic factors and cytokines, which might influence the postnatal development of the enteric(More)
Paratarg-7, a frequent autoantigenic target, and all other autoantigenic targets of human paraproteins molecularly defined to date are hyperphosphorylated in the respective patients compared with healthy controls, suggesting that hyperphosphorylation of autoantigenic paraprotein targets is a general mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of these(More)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) has to respond to continuously changing microenvironmental challenges within the gut and is therefore dependent on a neural stem cell niche to keep the ENS functional throughout life. In this study, we hypothesize that this stem cell niche is also affected during inflammation and therefore investigated lipopolysaccharides(More)