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correspondence tions (omitting the time stamps). We used interventional data on steady-state gene expression levels of known single-gene knockout experiments as the gold standard for determining the causal effects. We applied IDA, as well as Lasso and Elastic-net, to the observational datasets and evaluated how well the resulting top q predicted effects (q(More)
We consider the PC-algorithm ([13]) for estimating the skeleton of a very high-dimensional acyclic directed graph (DAG) with corresponding Gaussian distribution. The PC-algorithm is computationally feasible for sparse problems with many nodes, i.e. variables, and it has the attractive property to automatically achieve high computational efficiency as a(More)
We assume that we have observational data, generated from an unknown underlying directed acyclic graph (DAG) model. A DAG is typically not identifiable from observational data, but it is possible to consistently estimate the equivalence class of a DAG. Moreover, for any given DAG, causal effects can be estimated using intervention calculus. In this paper,(More)
The pcalg package for R (R Development Core Team (2010)) can be used for the following two purposes: Causal structure learning and estimation of causal effects from observational data. In this document, we give a brief overview of the methodology, and demonstrate the package's functionality in both toy examples and applications.
We consider the problem of learning causal information between random variables in directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) when allowing arbitrarily many latent and selection variables. The FCI (Fast Causal Inference) algorithm has been explicitly designed to infer conditional independence and causal information in such settings. However, FCI is computationally(More)
PURPOSE Studies of the outcome of hypospadias repair must document quality, including assessment of complications and appraisal of appearance. To our knowledge the Pediatric Penile Perception Score is the first validated instrument for the outcome assessment of hypospadias repair in prepubertal males by surgeons and patients. We validated the instrument for(More)
Guarding against false positive selections is important in many applications. We discuss methods based on subsampling and sample splitting for controlling the expected number of false positives and assigning p-values. They are generic and especially useful for high-dimensional settings. We review encouraging results for regression, and we discuss new(More)
BACKGROUND Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the one hand and recent developments in graphical modeling on the other hand might be combined(More)
Large contingency tables summarizing categorical variables arise in many areas. One example is in biology, where large numbers of biomarkers are cross-tabulated according to their discrete expression level. Interactions of the variables are of great interest and are generally studied with log-linear models. The structure of a log-linear model can be(More)