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Animal experiments suggest that cortical sensory representations may be remodelled as a consequence of changing synaptic efficacy by timing-dependent associative neuronal activity. Here we describe a timing-based associative form of plasticity in human somatosensory cortex. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) was performed by combining repetitive median(More)
BACKGROUND Neurostimulation of the internal globus pallidus has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of primary dystonia. We compared this surgical treatment with sham stimulation in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. METHODS Forty patients with primary segmental or generalized dystonia received an implanted device for deep-brain(More)
A 3-base pair (GAG) deletion in the DYT1 gene has recently been found to be responsible for most cases of early-onset primary generalized dystonia. In some cases, this mutation has been associated with writer's cramp. To determine the frequency of this mutation in a larger series of patients, we examined 44 index patients with sporadic or familial (seven(More)
The dystonias are a common clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of movement disorders. More than ten loci for inherited forms of dystonia have been mapped, but only three mutated genes have been identified so far. These are DYT1, encoding torsin A and mutant in the early-onset generalized form, GCH1 (formerly known as DYT5), encoding(More)
Functional MRI (fMRI), visualizing changes in cerebral blood oxygenation, has to date not been performed either in patients with writer's cramp or in healthy subjects during writing. We compared the cerebral and cerebellar activation pattern of 12 patients with writer's cramp during writing with a group of 10 healthy subjects performing the same tasks over(More)
Predicting the rate of disease progression has become important as trials of new medical treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are planned. Bulbar onset, early impairment of forced vital capacity, and older age have all been associated with shorter survival. We performed a retrospective study to compare survival factors with disease progression(More)
Neuronal plasticity is to be kept within operational limits to serve its purpose as a safe memory system that shapes and focuses sensory and motor representations. Temporal and spatial properties of motor cortical plasticity were assessed in patients with writer's cramp using a model of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic(More)
Neuroimaging is known to complement clinical findings in the diagnostic work up of parkinsonian syndromes. Recently, transcranial ultrasound was reported to have a high diagnostic yield in differentiating idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. This report summarises the sonographic findings of 102 patients with IPD, 34(More)
A novel Hebbian stimulation paradigm was employed to examine physiological correlates of motor memory formation in humans. Repetitive pairing of median nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral motor cortex (paired associative stimulation, PAS) may decrease human motor cortical excitability at interstimulus intervals of(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the antibiotic minocycline as a drug treatment in patients with Multiple-System-Atrophy Parkinson-type (MSA-P). Sixty-three patients were randomized to minocycline 200 mg/d (n = 32) or a matching placebo (n = 31). The primary outcome variable was the change in the value of the motor score of the(More)