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Pathogenic bacteria often use effector molecules to increase virulence. In most cases, the mode of action of effectors remains unknown. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) secrete syringolin A (SylA), a product of a mixed non-ribosomal peptide/polyketide synthetase, in planta. Here we identify SylA as a virulence factor because a(More)
Small molecules offer unprecedented opportunities for plant research since plants respond to, metabolize, and react with a diverse range of endogenous and exogenous small molecules. Many of these small molecules become covalently attached to proteins. To display these small molecule targets in plants, we introduce a two-step labelling method for minitagged(More)
Cyclodepsipeptide natural products often display intriguing biological activities that along with their complex molecular scaffolds, makes them interesting targets for chemical synthesis. Although cyclodepsipeptides feature highly diverse chemical structures, their synthesis is often associated with similar synthetic challenges such as the establishment of(More)
Proxy servers are common solutions to relieve organizational networks from heavy traffic by storing the most frequently referenced web objects in their local cache. These proxies are commonly known as cooperative proxy systems and are usually organized in such a way as to optimize the utilization of their storage capacity. However, the design of the(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with sepsis develop potentially irreversible cerebral dysfunctions. It is yet not clear whether cerebral haemodynamics are altered in these sepsis patients at all, and to what extent. We hypothesized that cerebral haemodynamics and carbon dioxide reactivity would be impaired in patients with sepsis syndrome and pathological(More)
A series of aminoglycoside-capped macrocyclic structures has been prepared using intramolecular bis-tethering of neomycin on three aromatic platforms (phenanthroline, acridine, quinacridine). Based on NMR and calculations studies, it was found that the cyclic compounds adopt a highly flexible structure without conformational restriction of the(More)
The AvrPphB effector of Pseudomonas syringae is a papain-like protease that is injected into the host plant cell and cleaves specific kinases to disrupt immune signaling. Here, we used the unique substrate specificity of AvrPphB to generate a specific activity-based probe. This probe displays various AvrPphB isoforms in bacterial extracts, upon secretion(More)
The marine natural product symplostatin 4 (Sym4) has been recognized as a potent antimalarial agent. However, its mode of action and, in particular, direct targets have to date remained elusive. We report a chemical synthesis of Sym4 and show that Sym4-treatment of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs) results in the generation of a swollen food(More)
Rcr3 and Pip1 are paralogous secreted papain-like proteases of tomato. Both proteases are inhibited by Avr2 from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, but only Rcr3 acts as a co-receptor for Avr2 recognition by the tomato Cf-2 immune receptor. Here, we show that Pip1-depleted tomato plants are hyper-susceptible to fungal, bacterial, and oomycete plant(More)