Markus Haapala

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An ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), is presented, and its application to the rapid analysis of compounds of various polarities on surfaces is demonstrated. The DAPPI technique relies on a heated nebulizer microchip delivering a heated jet of vaporized solvent, e.g., toluene, and a(More)
A comprehensive study was made, where desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) was applied to the direct analysis of confiscated drugs and pharmaceuticals of various forms and matrices. The analyzed samples included herbal products [Catha edulis (khat), Psilocybe mushrooms, opium and Spice], designer drugs in tablet and powder form [e.g.(More)
A microfluidic nebulizer chip for mass spectrometry is presented. It is an all-glass device which consists of fusion bonded Pyrex wafers with embedded flow channels and a nozzle at the chip edge. A platinum heater is located on the wafer backside. Fabrication of the chip is detailed, especially glass deep etching, wafer bonding, and metal patterning.(More)
The factors influencing desorption and ionization in newly developed desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) were studied. Redirecting the DAPPI spray was observed to further improve the versatility of the technique: for dilute samples, parallel spray with increased analyte signal was found to be the best suited, while(More)
The feasibility of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) in the direct analysis of illicit drugs was demonstrated by the analysis of confiscated drug samples of various forms such as tablets, blotter paper, and plant resin and bloom. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), amphetamine, phenazepam, and buprenorphine were detected from the(More)
RATIONALE Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides which have been shown to affect the memory and learning abilities of honey bees, and are suspected to play a part in the unexplainable, large-scale loss of honey bee colonies. Fast methods, such as ambient mass spectrometry (MS), for their analysis from a variety of matrices are necessary to control the(More)
An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) microchip is presented for combining a gas chromatograph (GC) to a mass spectrometer (MS). The chip includes capillary insertion channel, stopper, vaporizer channel, nozzle and nebulizer gas inlet fabricated on the silicon wafer, and a platinum heater sputtered on a glass wafer. These two wafers are joined(More)
Many insects use chemicals synthesized in exocrine glands and stored in reservoirs to protect themselves. Two chemically defended insects were used as models for the development of a new rapid analytical method based on desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The distribution of defensive chemicals on the insect body(More)
A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The method utilizes a heated nebulizer microchip in atmospheric pressure photoionization mode (μAPPI) with chlorobenzene as dopant,(More)
We present a capillary photoionization (CPI) method for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of liquid and gaseous samples. CPI utilizes a heated transfer capillary with a vacuum ultraviolet transparent MgF2 window, through which vacuum UV light (10 eV) from an external source enters the capillary. The liquid or gaseous sample, together with dopant, is(More)