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The plant hormone auxin is transported in a polar manner along the shoot-root axis, which requires efflux carriers such as PIN1. Asymmetric localization of PIN1 develops from a random distribution in Arabidopsis early embryogenesis. Coordinated polar localization of PIN1 is defective in gnom embryos. GNOM is a membrane-associated guanine-nucleotide exchange(More)
BACKGROUND In contrast to the intense attention devoted to research on intracellular sterol trafficking in animal cells, knowledge about sterol transport in plant cells remains limited, and virtually nothing is known about plant endocytic sterol trafficking. Similar to animals, biosynthetic sterol transport occurs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the(More)
Cell polarity is commonly coordinated within the plane of a single tissue layer (planar polarity), and hair positioning has been exploited as a simple marker for planar polarization of animal epithelia . The root epidermis of the plant Arabidopsis similarly reveals planar polarity of hair localization close to root tip-oriented (basal) ends of hair-forming(More)
The Arabidopsis GNOM protein, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that acts on ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-type G proteins, is required for coordination of cell polarity along the apical-basal embryo axis. Interallelic complementation of gnom mutants suggested that dimerization is involved in GNOM function. Here, direct interaction between GNOM(More)
Cytokinesis requires membrane fusion during cleavage-furrow ingression in animals and cell plate formation in plants. In Arabidopsis, the Sec1 homologue KEULE (KEU) and the cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE (KN) cooperate to promote vesicle fusion in the cell division plane. Here, we characterize AtSNAP33, an Arabidopsis homologue of the t-SNARE SNAP25,(More)
BACKGROUND Formation of plant root hairs originating from epidermal cells involves selection of a polar initiation site and production of an initial hair bulge which requires local cell wall loosening. In Arabidopsis the polar initiation site is located towards the basal end of epidermal cells. However little is currently understood about the mechanism for(More)
Coordination of cell and tissue polarity commonly involves directional signaling. In the Arabidopsis root epidermis, cell polarity is revealed by basal, root tip-oriented, hair outgrowth from hair-forming cells (trichoblasts). The plant hormone auxin displays polar movements and accumulates at maximum concentration in the root tip. The application of polar(More)
Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check(More)
Plants have many polarized cell types, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms that establish polarity. The orc mutant was identified originally by defects in root patterning, and positional cloning revealed that the affected gene encodes STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE1, which is required for the appropriate synthesis and composition of major membrane(More)