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The plant hormone auxin is transported in a polar manner along the shoot-root axis, which requires efflux carriers such as PIN1. Asymmetric localization of PIN1 develops from a random distribution in Arabidopsis early embryogenesis. Coordinated polar localization of PIN1 is defective in gnom embryos. GNOM is a membrane-associated guanine-nucleotide exchange(More)
BACKGROUND In contrast to the intense attention devoted to research on intracellular sterol trafficking in animal cells, knowledge about sterol transport in plant cells remains limited, and virtually nothing is known about plant endocytic sterol trafficking. Similar to animals, biosynthetic sterol transport occurs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the(More)
The polarization of yeast and animal cells relies on membrane sterols for polar targeting of proteins to the plasma membrane, their polar endocytic recycling and restricted lateral diffusion. However, little is known about sterol function in plant-cell polarity. Directional root growth along the gravity vector requires polar transport of the plant hormone(More)
Plants have many polarized cell types, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms that establish polarity. The orc mutant was identified originally by defects in root patterning, and positional cloning revealed that the affected gene encodes STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE1, which is required for the appropriate synthesis and composition of major membrane(More)
The Arabidopsis GNOM protein, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that acts on ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-type G proteins, is required for coordination of cell polarity along the apical-basal embryo axis. Interallelic complementation of gnom mutants suggested that dimerization is involved in GNOM function. Here, direct interaction between GNOM(More)
Local concentration gradients of the plant growth regulator auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) are thought to instruct the positioning of organ primordia and stem cell niches and to direct cell division, expansion, and differentiation. High-resolution measurements of endogenous IAA concentrations in support of the gradient hypothesis are required to(More)
The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of a single tissue layer (planar polarity) is a crucial task during development of multicellular organisms. Mechanisms underlying establishment of planar polarity, however, differ substantially between plants and animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, planar polarity of root-hair positioning along epidermal(More)
Cell polarity is commonly coordinated within the plane of a single tissue layer (planar polarity), and hair positioning has been exploited as a simple marker for planar polarization of animal epithelia . The root epidermis of the plant Arabidopsis similarly reveals planar polarity of hair localization close to root tip-oriented (basal) ends of hair-forming(More)
Multiple steps of plant growth and development rely on rapid cell elongation during which secretory and endocytic trafficking via the trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role. Here, we identify the ECHIDNA (ECH) protein from Arabidopsis thaliana as a TGN-localized component crucial for TGN function. ECH partially complements loss of budding yeast(More)
Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check(More)