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Monocytes and macrophages are critical effectors and regulators of inflammation and the innate immune response, the immediate arm of the immune system. Dendritic cells initiate and regulate the highly pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses and are central to the development of immunologic memory and tolerance. Recent in vivo experimental approaches in(More)
Lymphoid tissue plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are continuously regenerated from hematopoietic stem cells. The cytokine dependence and biology of plasmacytoid and conventional DCs suggest that regeneration might proceed through common DC-restricted developmental intermediates. By selecting for cytokine receptor expression relevant to DC(More)
BACKGROUND The progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) to blast crisis is supported by self-renewing leukemic stem cells. In normal mouse hematopoietic stem cells, the process of self-renewal involves the beta-catenin-signaling pathway. We investigated whether leukemic stem cells in CML also use the beta-catenin pathway for self-renewal. METHODS(More)
Because ethical restrictions limit in vivo studies of the human hemato-lymphoid system, substitute human to small animal xenotransplantation models have been employed. Existing models, however, sustain only limited development and maintenance of human lymphoid cells and rarely produce immune responses. Here we show that intrahepatic injection of CD34+ human(More)
Stimulation of Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase through its cognate ligand expands early hematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells (DCs) in humans and mice. The exact developmental stages at which hematopoietic progenitors express Flt3, are responsive to its ligand, and subsequently develop to DCs, are not known. Here we show that common lymphoid and common(More)
Stem cell biology is scientifically, clinically, and politically a current topic. The hematopoietic stem cell, the common ancestor of all types of blood cells, is one of the best-characterized stem cells in the body and the only stem cell that is clinically applied in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer, leukemias, and congenital(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) are bone marrow (BM)-derived epidermal dendritic cells (DCs) that represent a critical immunologic barrier to the external environment, but little is known about their life cycle. Here, we show that in lethally irradiated mice that had received BM transplants, LCs of host origin remained for at least 18 months, whereas DCs in other(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous fraction of rare hematopoietic cells that coevolved with the formation of the adaptive immune system. DCs efficiently process and present antigen, move from sites of antigen uptake to sites of cellular interactions, and are critical in the initiation of immune responses as well as in the maintenance of(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) development is efficiently supported by Flt3-ligand or GM-CSF in vitro, and lymphoid-organ DC maintenance in vivo is critically dependent on Flt3-ligand. However, the relevance of GM-CSF for lymphoid-tissue DC maintenance and the importance of both cytokines for nonlymphoid organ DC homeostasis are not defined. Here, we show that,(More)
Because of different cytokine responsiveness, surface receptor, and transcription factor expression, human CD11c(-) natural type I interferon-producing cells (IPCs) and CD11c(+) dendritic cells were thought to derive through lymphoid and myeloid hematopoietic developmental pathways, respectively. To directly test this hypothesis, we used an in vitro assay(More)