Markus Fischer

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Memories are thought to be due to lasting synaptic modifications in the brain. The search for memory traces has relied predominantly on determining regions that are necessary for the process. However, a more informative approach is to define the smallest sufficient set of brain structures. The rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that is ubiquitously(More)
Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the(More)
By analyzing the human antibody repertoire in terms of structure, amino acid sequence diversity and germline usage, we found that seven V(H) and seven V(L) (four Vkappa and three Vlambda) germline families cover more than 95 % of the human antibody diversity used. A consensus sequence was derived for each family and optimized for expression in Escherichia(More)
What determines invasiveness of alien organisms is among the most interesting and urgent questions in ecology. In attempts to answer this question, researchers compare invasive alien species either to native species or to non-invasive alien species, and this is done in either the introduced or native ranges. However, inferences that can be drawn from these(More)
The engineering of transgenic crops resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate has greatly improved agricultural efficiency worldwide. Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup, target the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, the functionality of which is absolutely required for the survival of plants.(More)
Subtropical broad-leaved forests in southeastern China support a high diversity of woody plants. Using a comparative study design with 303 30 m plots (n1⁄4 27) from five successional stages (,20, ,40, ,60, ,80, and 80 yr), we investigated how the gradient in species composition reflects underlying processes of community assembly. In particular, we tested(More)
We investigated the distribution of genetic variation and the relationship between population size and genetic variation in the rare plant Gentianella germanica using RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) profiles. Plants for the analysis were grown from seeds sampled from 72 parent plants in 11 G. germanica populations of different size (40-5000 fruiting(More)
In this study, 77 clinical and 67 oyster Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from North America were examined for biochemical profiles, serotype, and the presence of potential virulence factors (tdh, trh, and type III secretion system [T3SS] genes). All isolates were positive for oxidase, indole, and glucose fermentation, consistent with previous reports. The(More)
A decline in population size can lead to the loss of allelic variation, increased inbreeding, and the accumulation of genetic load through drift. We estimated the fitness consequences of these processes in offspring of controlled within-population crosses from 13 populations of the self-incompatible, clonal plant Ranunculus reptans. We used allozyme allelic(More)
We examined the effects of size and spatial isolation of fens on the isozyme variability of 17 populations of Swertia perennis. This long-lived perennial is a locally abundant fen specialist in Switzerland, where wetlands have been strongly fragmented. Isozyme variability was comparable to other outcrossing plants (A = 1.53, AP(p) = 2.01, P(p) = 42.5, H(o)(More)