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Consistency of corpus annotation is an essential property for the many uses of annotated corpora in computational and theoretical linguistics. While some research addresses the detection of inconsistencies in positional annotation (e.g., part-of-speech) and continuous structural annotation (e.g., syntactic constituency), no approach has yet been developed(More)
Building from the CHILDES dependency annotation scheme and on inter-language POS annotation, we describe a syntactic annotation scheme developed for the data of second language learners. We encode subcategorization frames and underlying dependencies, in addition to the usual surface dependencies. The annotation scheme is relatively independent of language(More)
Many evaluation issues for grammatical error detection have previously been overlooked, making it hard to draw meaningful comparisons between different approaches, even when they are evaluated on the same corpus. To begin with, the three-way contingency between a writer's sentence, the annotator's correction, and the system's output makes evaluation more(More)