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Many evaluation issues for grammatical error detection have previously been overlooked, making it hard to draw meaningful comparisons between different approaches, even when they are evaluated on the same corpus. To begin with, the three-way contingency between a writer's sentence, the annotator's correction, and the system's output makes evaluation more(More)
We outline the problem of ad hoc rules in treebanks, rules used for specific constructions in one data set and unlikely to be used again. These include ungeneralizable rules, erroneous rules, rules for ungrammatical text, and rules which are not consistent with the rest of the annotation scheme. Based on a simple notion of rule equivalence and on the idea(More)
Nurses without prior experience in the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) were randomly allocated to one of two groups to be trained in the emergency technique of insertion of an LMA. Group A (32 nurses) were trained only on a manikin and group B (20 nurses) were trained on a manikin and with live anaesthetised patient practice in theatre (five(More)
Consistency of corpus annotation is an essential property for the many uses of annotated corpora in computational and theoretical linguistics. While some research addresses the detection of inconsistencies in positional annotation (e.g., part-of-speech) and continuous structural annotation (e.g., syntactic constituency), no approach has yet been developed(More)