We review some usual laser range finding techniques for industrial applications. After outlining the basic principles of triangulation and time of flight [pulsed, phase-shift and frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW)], we discuss their respective fundamental limitations. Selected examples of traditional and new applications are also briefly presented.
Intersubband transitions in n-doped multi-quantum-well semiconductor heterostructures make it possible to engineer one of the largest known nonlinear optical responses in condensed matter systems--but this nonlinear response is limited to light with electric field polarized normal to the semiconductor layers. In a different context, plasmonic metasurfaces… (More)
A novel long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structure based on a subwavelength high-contrast grating (HCG) as the output mirror has been realized. By design, these devices are highly polarization stable, are single mode at large apertures, and solve the VCSEL-mirror problem at long wavelengths in an elegant way. With… (More)
1.55-microm vertical cavity surface-emitting low-parasitic lasers show open eyes up to 22-Gb/s modulation speed. Uncooled error-free operation over a wide temperature range up to 85 degrees C under constant bias conditions is demonstrated at 12.5-Gb/s data rate. At these fixed bias conditions the laser characteristics are practically invariant with… (More)
Gradient metasurfaces have recently been demonstrated to provide control of the phase of scattered fields over sub-wavelength scales, enabling a broad range of linear optical components in a flat, ultrathin, integrable platform. Additionally, the development of nonlinear metasurfaces has disrupted conventional nonlinear optical device design by relaxing… (More)
Optical methods are one of the painless and promising techniques that can be used for blood glucose predictions for diabetes patients. The use of thermally tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as the light source to obtain blood absorption spectra, along with the multivariate technique partial least squares for analysis and glucose… (More)