Markus Chmielewski

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BACKGROUND & AIMS Antiviral agents suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication but do not clear the infection. A strong effector T-cell response is required to eradicate HBV, but this does not occur in patients with chronic infection. T cells might be directed toward virus-infected cells by expressing HBV-specific receptors and thereby clear HBV and help(More)
Chimeric TCRs with an Ab-derived binding domain confer predefined specificity and MHC-independent target binding to T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy. We investigated the impact of receptor binding affinity on the activation of grafted T cells. A series of anti-ErbB2 single-chain fragment binding domains with a K(d) ranging from 3.2 x 10(-7) to 1.5(More)
Adoptive T-cell transfer showed promising efficacy in recent trials raising interest in T cells with redirected specificity against tumors. T cells were engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) with predefined binding and CD3ζ signaling to initiate T-cell activation. CD28 costimulation provided by a CD28-CD3ζ signaling CAR moreover improved T cell(More)
Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells with redirected specificity showed efficacy in recent trials. In preclinical models, 'second-generation' CARs with CD28 costimulatory domain in addition to CD3ζ performed superior in redirecting T-cell effector functions and survival. Whereas CD28 costimulation(More)
During malignant progression cancer cells tend to lose cell surface expression of MHC and other immune antigens, making them invisible to cytotoxic T cells and therefore inaccessible to tumor antigen-directed immunotherapy. Moreover, cancer cell variants that have lost antigen expression frequently contribute to deadly tumor relapses that occur following(More)
NK cells are promising effectors for tumor adoptive immunotherapy, particularly when considering the targeting of MHC class I low or negative tumors. Yet, NK cells cannot respond to many tumors, which is particularly the case for nonhematopoietic tumors such as carcinomas or melanoma even when these cells lose MHC class I surface expression. Therefore, we(More)
Adoptive T cell therapy recently achieved impressive efficacy in early-phase clinical trials; this significantly raises the profile of immunotherapy in the fight against cancer. A broad variety of tumour cells can specifically be targeted by patients' T cells, which are redirected in an antibody-defined, major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted fashion(More)
Rat spinal cord slices produced kynurenic acid (KYNA) upon exposure to L-kynurenine. Aminooxyacetic acid, non-selective aminotransferase inhibitor, and L-glutamate, but neither N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-metyloisoxazolo-4-propionate (AMPA), nor kainate, diminished synthesis of KYNA. L-Glutamate action was less potent in spinal than(More)
INTRODUCTION Adoptive cell therapy of malignant diseases takes advantage of the cellular immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. This is impressively demonstrated by redirecting T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) towards CD19, inducing complete and lasting remission of leukemia in more than two-thirds of patients in early phase(More)