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Phasic activation of the dopamine (DA) midbrain system in response to unexpected reward or novelty is critical for adaptive behavioral strategies. This activation of DA midbrain neurons occurs via a synaptically triggered switch from low-frequency background spiking to transient high-frequency burst firing. We found that, in medial DA neurons of the(More)
The ability of neurons to emit different firing patterns such as bursts or oscillations is important for information processing in the brain. In dopaminergic neurons, prominent patterns include repetitive, oscillatory bursts, regular pacemakers, and irregular spike trains with nonstationary properties. In order to describe and measure the variability of(More)
Orthodontists commonly specify the alignment of the teeth and jaws by means of a set of k angles and their relationship with each other. Each individual can thus be visualized as a point in k-dimensional space. Individuals regarded as having an ideal occlusion and well-balanced face, form a cloud of points that is termed the 'norm' population. Individuals(More)
In statistical spike train analysis, stochastic point process models usually assume stationarity, in particular that the underlying spike train shows a constant firing rate (e.g. [1]). However, such models can lead to misinterpretation of the associated tests if the assumption of rate sta-tionarity is not met (e.g. [2]). Therefore, the analysis of(More)
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