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Efficient cell electrotransfection can be achieved using combinations of high-voltage (HV; 800 V/cm, 100 micros) and low-voltage (LV; 80 V/cm, 100 ms) pulses. We have developed equipment allowing the generation of various HV and LV combinations with precise control of the lag between the HV and LV pulses. We injected luciferase-encoding DNA in skeletal(More)
Electropermeabilization is a phenomenon that transiently increases permeability of the cell plasma membrane. In the state of high permeability, the plasma membrane allows ions, small and large molecules to be introduced into the cytoplasm, although the cell plasma membrane represents a considerable barrier for them in its normal state. Besides introduction(More)
Electropermeabilization of the cell membrane is a phenomenon caused by exposure of the cell to electric pulses. Permeabilization depends on pulse duration, pulse amplitude, the number of pulses delivered, and also on other experimental conditions. With these parameters properly chosen, the process of permeabilization is reversible and cells return to their(More)
The paper presents a comparative study of electropermeabilization of cells in suspension by unipolar and symmetrical bipolar rectangular electric pulses. While the parameters of electropermeabilization by unipolar pulses have been investigated extensively both in cell suspensions and in tissues, studies using bipolar pulses have been rare, partly due to the(More)
xposure of a biological cell to an electric field can produce a variety of responses [1]-[6]. If the field strength exceeds a certain threshold value, this leads to a large transient increase in membrane conductivity and permeability for ions and molecules (electropermeabilization, often also named electroporation) or to fusion of adjacent cells(More)
In the paper we discuss requirements for a clinical electrochemotherapy (ECT) device. These requirements are discussed in the light of the hardware that is needed for ECT. The hardware needed for ECT consists of an electroporator and a set of electrodes. The electroporator is a device that has to fulfill both electrical and safety requirements. Under(More)
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