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Despite improvements in wastewater treatment systems, the impact of anthropogenic nutrient sources remains a key issue for the management of European lakes. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides a mechanism through which progress can be made on this issue. The Directive requires a classification of the ecological status of phytoplankton, which(More)
Direct in vivo Achilles tendon force measurements open up new possibilities for understanding the loading of the Achilles tendon during natural locomotion. This article describes how these human experiments can be performed. The results of these experiments imply that Achilles tendon forces are unexpectedly high in certain activities (e.g., hopping) and(More)
A long auditory stimulus elicits a magnetic evoked response in the human brain, consisting of transient deflections followed by a sustained response. The distributions of the magnetic fields indicate that the auditory evoked transient response at a latency of 100 ms as well as the auditory sustained response are generated at and around the primary auditory(More)
Elastic behaviour of the human tendomuscular system during jumping was investigated by determination of the in vivo Achilles tendon force. A buckle-type transducer was implanted under local anaesthesia around the right Achilles tendon of an adult subject. After calibration, the Achilles tendon force was recorded together with the triceps surae muscle(More)
Information included in this publication or extracts thereof are free for citing on the condition that the complete reference of the publication is given as stated above. The environment of the Baltic Sea is unique and fragile. Pollution, fi shing, physical modifi cations, and other human activities exert pressure on a large variety of marine habitats and(More)
Mechanical behavior of muscle and its control is largely unknown under normal movement conditions. The present report deals with the methodological development to record directly in vivo forces from the human achilles tendon (AT) when the subjects perform normal movements ranging from slow walking to maximal sprinting and jumping. The development began with(More)
Traditionally, chemical analyses are used in the assessment of contaminated soil and in monitoring the efficiency of soil remediation processes. We investigated if chemical analysis could be supported and even partly replaced by biological toxicity tests. In two case studies creosote-contaminated soil was composted outdoors in 5- and 100-m3 windrows.(More)
Phytoplankton data from 606 lakes were used to characterize indicator taxa of near-pristine reference conditions in clearwater and humic lowland lakes of Northern and Central Europe. Reference lakes were selected based on low pressure from catchment land-use, low population density and the absence of point sources. Reference lakes had low phytoplankton(More)
Cycling represents an activity, in which the leg extensor muscles have been thought to contract only concentrically. In the present investigation, the forces of the triceps surae muscles were recorded directly in vivo from the achilles tendon (AT) of a healthy male subject, who pedaled on the standard bicycle ergometer at varying work loads (88, 176, and(More)
Phytoplankton constitutes a diverse array of short-lived organisms which derive their nutrients from the water column of lakes. These features make this community the most direct and earliest indicator of the impacts of changing nutrient conditions on lake ecosystems. It also makes them particularly suitable for measuring the success of restoration measures(More)