Markku Hirvonen

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Cerebral regional inositol, inositol-1-phosphate (Ins1P), and inositol-4-phosphate (Ins4P), intermediates in phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, and brain lithium levels were studied in male Han:Wistar rats 24 hr after an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose (2.5-18 mEq./kg) of LiCl. A dose of LiCl higher than 5 mEq/kg caused a remarkable accumulation of Li+(More)
The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily correspond to the views of the Bank of Finland Abstract This paper examines the electronification of noncash payments in Finland and the extent to which noncash payment means are used as substitutes for cash. We model the processes of cash substitution and electronification of payments as(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Stimulation of brain cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChR) cause persistent tonic-clonic convulsions. mAChRs are coupled to G-protein which mediates the receptor stimulation to phospholipidase C (PLC). PLC hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI), a membrane(More)
Regional levels of cerebral inositol-1-phosphate (Ins1P), an intermediate in phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, were readily detected with a new gas chromatographic (GC) method. GC analysis of trimethylsilyated Ins1P and myo-inositol-2-phosphate with a fused silica capillary SE-30 column and flame ionization detection was linear at picomolar range(More)
Cerebral inositol and inositol monophosphates, products of phosphoinositide (PI) turnover, and neuronal injury were studied in young (10 weeks) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats after pilocarpine-induced convulsions. The goal was to explore the association between short-term cholinergic convulsions, brain PI signaling, and changes in the brain morphology(More)
The effects of a single dose of LiCl (2.5 or 10 mEq/kg) on brain inositol and inositol-1-phosphate (Ins1P), intermediates of brain phosphoinositide (PI) turnover, were determined in male Han: Wistar rats. There was a remarkable, 36-58 fold elevation of brain Li+ as the single dose of LiCl was increased 4-fold. Moreover, the accumulation of brain lithium was(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a powerful excitotoxic neurotransmitter in the brain. By stimulating Ca(2+)-mobilizing receptors, ACh, through G-protein(s), stimulates phospholipase C and causes the hydrolysis of a membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to two second messengers, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (ins-(1,4,5)-P3), and diacylglycerol.(More)
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling during organophosphate (OP) induced convulsions and tissue Ca2+ changes in 10 weeks old male, and 14 weeks old non-pregnant and pregnant female rats, and the offspring of the latter were explored. Brain inositol and inositol-1-phosphate (Ins1P) served as indices of alterations in brain PI signaling, and brain tissue Ca2+(More)
LiCl-induced (5 mEq/kg) regional differences in the cerebral phosphoinositide (PI) cycle were studied by measuring inositol-1-phosphate (Ins-1-P), an intermediate in the PI cycle, in male Sprague Dawley and Han/Wistar rats by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Control Ins-1-P levels were higher frontally than caudally in both rat strains. LiCl increased(More)
Convulsions, neuronal morphology, brain phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, and calcium levels were studied in rats 1, 4, and 72 hr after malaoxon (MO; 26.2 or 39.2 mg/kg ip) subsequent to pretreatment with saline or LiCl (10 meq/kg ip). The high dose of MO induced convulsions in 60% of the rats whereas the low dose was ineffective. In nonconvulsing rats, MO(More)