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Most terrestrial carbon sequestration at mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere occurs in seasonal, montane forest ecosystems. Winter respiratory carbon dioxide losses from these ecosystems are high, and over half of the carbon assimilated by photosynthesis in the summer can be lost the following winter. The amount of winter carbon dioxide loss is(More)
Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were measured from both natural and experimentally augmented snowpacks during the winters of 1993 and 1994 on Niwot Ridge in the Colorado Front Range. Consistent snow cover insulated the soil surface from extreme air temperatures and allowed heterotrophic activity to continue through much of the winter. In contrast, soil remained(More)
[1] The respiratory loss of CO 2 from soil microbes beneath winter snow in forests from cold climates can significantly influence the annual carbon budget. We explored the magnitude of winter soil respiration using continuous measurements of beneath-snow CO 2 concentration within the footprint of a flux tower in a subalpine forest in the Rocky Mountains. We(More)
Reactome (http://www.reactome.org) is a manually curated open-source open-data resource of human pathways and reactions. The current version 46 describes 7088 human proteins (34% of the predicted human proteome), participating in 6744 reactions based on data extracted from 15 107 research publications with PubMed links. The Reactome Web site and analysis(More)
ChEBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi) is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. Over the past few years, ChEBI has continued to grow steadily in content, and has added several new features. In addition to incorporating all user-requested compounds, our annotation efforts have emphasized immunology, natural products and metabolites(More)
you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.(More)
in rainfall indicate that local urban and agricultural areas were the major source of the ions in rainfall. the late autumn, winter, and early spring. The montane snowpack accumulates wet and dry atmospheric deposition, which may be held in storage until release during a melt period. The rugged and variable topography characteristic of alpine areas can(More)
you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.(More)
Although recent work has shown that both deterministic and stochastic processes are important in structuring microbial communities, the factors that affect the relative contributions of niche and neutral processes are poorly understood. The macrobiological literature indicates that ecological disturbances can influence assembly processes. Thus, we sampled(More)
Scripting languages are widely used to quickly accomplish a variety of tasks because of the high productivity they enable. Among other reasons, this increased productivity results from a combination of extensive libraries, fast development cycle, dynamic typing, and polymorphism. The dynamic features of scripting languages are traditionally associated with(More)