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Albumin is the major transport protein in blood and intramolecular movement contributes to this function. Nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG) of albumin occurs in diabetes and, in this study, fluorometric methods were used to determine the effect of increasing levels of NEG upon intramolecular movement in human serum albumin. Low levels of NEG significantly(More)
Hypochlorous acid is the major strong oxidant generated by human neutrophils, and it has the potential to cause much of the tissue damage that these inflammatory cells promote. It is produced from hydrogen peroxide and chloride by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase. To unequivocally establish that hypochlorous acid contributes to inflammation, a stable and(More)
2-Amino-3-(methylamino)-propanoic acid (BMAA) is a low potency excitatory amino acid present in the cycad plant that has been proposed as a factor in the high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism dementia (ALS-PD) in the western Pacific region. We employed stable isotopic forms of BMAA to assess the oral bioavailability of this compound(More)
Peroxynitrite, a powerful mutagenic oxidant and nitrating species, is formed by the near diffusion-limited reaction of .NO and O2.- during activation of phagocytes. Chronic inflammation induced by phagocytes is a major contributor to cancer and other degenerative diseases. We examined how gamma-tocopherol (gammaT), the principal form of vitamin E in the(More)
Proteins and aromatic amino acids previously exposed to hydroxyl radicals reduced cytochrome c, free iron, and copper ions. A major product of hydroxyl radical addition to tyrosine is 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which has these reducing properties. The reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium by radical-damaged protein was consistent with the generation(More)
beta-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic plant amino acid that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the high incidence amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related parkinsonism dementia of the western Pacific. Previous studies have demonstrated that BMAA is taken up into brain following intravenous or oral administration. To examine the(More)
BACKGROUND Some but not all patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond to treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We developed and tested the ability of a predictive algorithm based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of pretreatment serum to(More)
Mitochondrial bioenergetic function is often reported to decline with age and the accumulation of oxidative damage is thought to contribute. However, there are considerable uncertainties about the amount and significance of mitochondrial oxidative damage in aging. We hypothesized that, as radical production in mitochondria is greater than the rest of the(More)
The tear film is complex and is rich in both peptides and proteins. Physiological factors have been shown to alter the balance of the protein components in the tear film, however, little is known of the precise stimuli that initiate these changes, or their nature and extent. Attention has been directed at the role of tear proteins in the protection of the(More)
The nitration of aromatic compounds by electrophilic substitution is often utilized in analyses of nitrate concentrations in physiological samples by gas chromatographic methods. Problems associated with the use of concentrated sulfuric acid, which is normally used to catalyze this reaction, led us to investigate an alternative method. We describe here a(More)