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The techniques available for the interrogation and analysis of neuroimaging data have a large influence in determining the flexibility, sensitivity, and scope of neuroimaging experiments. The development of such methodologies has allowed investigators to address scientific questions that could not previously be answered and, as such, has become an important(More)
A fully probabilistic framework is presented for estimating local probability density functions on parameters of interest in a model of diffusion. This technique is applied to the estimation of parameters in the diffusion tensor model, and also to a simple partial volume model of diffusion. In both cases the parameters of interest include parameters(More)
We present a direct extension of probabilistic diffusion tractography to the case of multiple fibre orientations. Using automatic relevance determination, we are able to perform online selection of the number of fibre orientations supported by the data at each voxel, simplifying the problem of tracking in a multi-orientation field. We then apply the(More)
Evidence concerning anatomical connectivities in the human brain is sparse and based largely on limited post-mortem observations. Diffusion tensor imaging has previously been used to define large white-matter tracts in the living human brain, but this technique has had limited success in tracing pathways into gray matter. Here we identified specific(More)
Typically in neuroimaging we are looking to extract some pertinent information from imperfect, noisy images of the brain. This might be the inference of percent changes in blood flow in perfusion FMRI data, segmentation of subcortical structures from structural MRI, or inference of the probability of an anatomical connection between an area of cortex and a(More)
In functional magnetic resonance imaging statistical analysis there are problems with accounting for temporal autocorrelations when assessing change within voxels. Techniques to date have utilized temporal filtering strategies to either shape these autocorrelations or remove them. Shaping, or "coloring," attempts to negate the effects of not accurately(More)
Our decisions are guided by outcomes that are associated with decisions made in the past. However, the amount of influence each past outcome has on our next decision remains unclear. To ensure optimal decision-making, the weight given to decision outcomes should reflect their salience in predicting future outcomes, and this salience should be modulated by(More)
In recent years the study of resting state brain networks (RSNs) has become an important area of neuroimaging. The majority of studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure temporal correlation between blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from different brain areas. However, BOLD is an indirect measure related to(More)
There is great interest in estimating brain "networks" from FMRI data. This is often attempted by identifying a set of functional "nodes" (e.g., spatial ROIs or ICA maps) and then conducting a connectivity analysis between the nodes, based on the FMRI timeseries associated with the nodes. Analysis methods range from very simple measures that consider just(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies often involve the acquisition of data from multiple sessions and/or multiple subjects. A hierarchical approach can be taken to modelling such data with a general linear model (GLM) at each level of the hierarchy introducing different random effects variance components. Inferring on these models is nontrivial(More)