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The prominent role of the CD40 receptor in B cell responses led us to investigate the role of the gp39-CD40 interaction in a group of primary immunodeficient patients with defective antibody production. Here we report that patients with hyper-IgM syndrome (HIM) have a defective gp39-CD40 interaction. B cells from HIM patients express functional CD40, but(More)
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) promises to be transformative for the practice of clinical microbiology, and the rapidly falling cost and turnaround time mean that this will become a viable technology in diagnostic and reference laboratories in the near future. The objective of this article is to consider at a very practical level where, in the context of a(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infections associated with external ventricular drain (EVD) placement attract major consequences. Silver impregnation of catheters attempts to reduce infection. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of silver catheters against CSF infection. METHODS We performed a randomized, controlled trial involving 2 neurosurgical(More)
METHODS We compared time from hospital admission to death in a probability sample of 100 Clostridium difficile infected cases and a probability sample of 98 non-cases admitted to an English teaching hospital between 2005 and 2007 with follow up in the UK national death register using survival analysis. RESULTS Clostridium difficile infection was(More)