Mark W. F. Fischer

Learn More
Active discharge of basidiospores in most species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid movement of a droplet of fluid, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. This paper is concerned with the operation of the launch mechanism in species with the largest and smallest ballistospores. Aleurodiscus gigasporus (Russulales) produces the largest(More)
Many ascomycete fungi spurt their spores from asci pressurized by osmosis. This paper explores the details of this process in the coprophilous species Ascobolus immersus, through a combination of biomechanical and biochemical experiments, and mathematical modeling. A. immersus forms large asci that expel 8 spores as a single, mucilage-embedded projectile.(More)
Ballistospore discharge is a feature of 30000 species of mushrooms, basidiomycete yeasts and pathogenic rusts and smuts. The biomechanics of discharge may involve an abrupt change in the center of mass associated with the coalescence of Buller's drop and the spore. However this process occurs so rapidly that the launch of the ballistospore has never been(More)
BACKGROUND Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum discharge distances of 1-2(More)
BACKGROUND A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include "squirt guns" that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple(More)
Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More(More)
The bird's nest fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) package millions of spores into peridioles that are splashed from their basidiomata by the impact of raindrops. In this study we report new information on the discharge mechanism in Crucibulum and Cyathus species revealed with high-speed video. Peridioles were ejected at speeds of 1-5 m per second utilizing(More)
This contribution is based on the six presentations given at the Special Interest Group meeting on Mathematical modelling of fungal growth and function held during IMC9. The topics covered aspects of fungal growth ranging across several orders of magnitude of spatial and temporal scales from the bio-mechanics of spore ejection, vesicle trafficking and(More)
Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills(More)
Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on(More)